Transcript for NASA Connect - Ahead Above The Clouds

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[RJ:] Hello everybody, welcome
to Rockfeller Center you are

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in the heart of mid town Manhattan,

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our today's show studio
the window on the world.

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I'm

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[inaudible] each morning I try
to tell people what to expect

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for the rest of their day.

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Every week day I forecast the
weather outside our NBC studios.

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In the elements this way not
only do I get to meet the weather

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but the fans of the
today's show as well.

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Although people say I'm a little
unpredictable luckily meteorologist

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have the tools they need
to make the forecast

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as predictable as they are.

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When I forecast the weather?

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I analyze data, predict weather
patterns and let people know

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if their day is going to be hot
and dry or wet windy and cold.

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Like I always say in the morning

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on the today's show
here is what's happening

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in your neck of the worlds.

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On today's program, you
learn how meteorologist

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and NASA researchers use
measurement and data analysis

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to predict severe
weather like hurricanes.

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You will meet a special
group of men and women

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who measures hurricanes

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by actually flying an
airplane into them.

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In your classroom play
the imperfect storm again

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that allows you to track
a hurricane and predict

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where we will make a land for.

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You'll also use computer
simulations

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which study the behavior of
hurricanes and predict their path.

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Plus one about the
gift NASA is developing

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for future meteorologists.

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So hold on tight as NASA Connect
takes you ahead above the clouds.

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[RJ:] Hey wait there are no clouds.

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Oh, Man!

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[Jennifer:] Hi!

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Welcome to NASA Connect, the show
that connects you to the world

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of math, science,
technology and NASA.

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I'm Jennifer Pulley
and this is Norbert.

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Now before we start the show,

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teachers make sure you have the
lesson guide for today's program.

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It can be downloaded from
our NASA Connect website.

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You wanted to keep
your eyes on Norbert

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because every time he appears
with questions like this,

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Have your Q cards from the
lesson guide and your brain ready

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to answer the questions
he gives you and teachers

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when you see Norbert with
a remote that's your key

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to pause the video tape and
discuss the key part of questions.

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Today NASA Connect is at

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[inaudible] Airforce base in

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[inaudible] Mississippi.

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Wow. This is the home of
the hurricanes hunters,

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the only military unit in
the world to fly directly

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into a hurricane and collect
data on a routine basis.

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We will meet one of these
hunters a little later

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but first let's hear
more about hurricane.

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A hurricane is a violet
tropical storm

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with deluging winds
and torrential rain.

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Hurricanes can form
in the Atlantic,

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Pacific and Indian Oceans.

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Hurricanes are given other
names in different countries

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such as a typhoon in South-East
Asia, a Baggio in the Philippines,

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and tropical cyclones in Australia.

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[RJ:] How does the hurricane form?

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[RJ:] A hurricane gets its energy

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from the warm moist air
at the ocean surface.

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As this air ascends to form
clouds, more air is drawn

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to the hurricane winds
spiral inward and we begin

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to see the familiar
shape of the hurricane.

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At the centre of the hurricane,

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the air descends forming a
very quite eye with a ring

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of clouds surrounding.

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The weather in the
eye is much different

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from the weather surrounding.

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The winds grow calm and the sky may
clear, surrounding the eye or bands

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of heavy rains and very high winds.

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When the hurricane comes to
shore it brings high waves,

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severe flooding and wind damage.

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Hurricanes uproot trees, smash
buildings and destroy power-lines.

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Hurricane Andrew was the
third strongest hurricane

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to strike the United
States coastline on record.

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Andrew swept through
Southern Florida and Louisiana

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in 1992 causing over twenty
five billion dollars in damage.

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Amazingly, few people were killed
despite the widespread destruction.

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We want to know if a hurricane
is going to affect us.

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We turn to meteorologists.

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Meteorologists are
scientists who study the causes

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of weather like hurricane
and try to predict

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where they will go after they form.

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More accurate forecasts will help
prepare people well in advance

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of an approaching hurricane.

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And in turn how to save lives.

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[RJ:] For more on how
meteorologists predict hurricane,

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we came to weather channel
here at land in Georgia.

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[RJ:] Oh! Jennifer in
order to meteorologist like

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to me predict hurricanes we need

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[inaudible] at least four
variables, temperature, moisture,

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air pressure and the
most important wind.

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Wind directly or indirectly causes
all the damage from the hurricane.

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For example winds produce
waves which cause flooding,

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anyway the winds in and around
of hurricane that push it along

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and produces motion are
called Steering winds.

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Steering winds control three
things, the speed of which

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at hurricane will
move, where it move

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and whether they will
strengthen or weaken.

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[RJ:] All dotted lines that seems
to me than if you know information

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on the winds than you can easily
predict for the hurricane will do.

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[RJ:] Winds are important, but
remember I also have to look

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at temperature, moisture
and air pressure.

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[RJ:] Okay, or it so - - where
you get all that information.

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[RJ:] We here the weather channels,
receive data from weather stations

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on the ground from chips and

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[inaudible] at sea,
from aircraft that fly

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into the hurricane like
the hurricane hunters

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and from satellites in space.

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Because our atmosphere is made

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out of many layers ideally data
should be collected to the all

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of the different heights
throughout the fuse

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in the atmosphere.

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Therefore we rely mostly on air
blow and observations in satellites

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to measure these variables
and different altitudes.

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[Jennifer:] So once you receive
the data on temperature, moisture,

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air pressure and wind
what you do with it?

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[RJ:] I analyze it.

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Along with the data we receive I
look at previous data and how do

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if changing with time.

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I use my experience with past
hurricanes predict the hurricane

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strengthen their intensity
and it's projected path.

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Computers at the national
weather service

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in Washington D.C.
receive these data

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and input the data into American

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[inaudible] which
generate forecast.

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I receive these forecasts at
the weather channel of Land

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of Georgia along with forecast made

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by the national hurricane
centre at Miamian Florida.

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My final forecast is a blend

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of hurricane's current
track and intensity.

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My forecast computer forecast

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and the forecast international
hurricane center.

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Finally I go on television and
make a prediction about the path

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of the hurricane and how
it might affect people

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on the coast and inland.

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[RJ:] Thanks Dr. Lawrence.

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Hey, how would you like to
use computer simulations

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to study the behavior of hurricanes

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and then predict their path
just like Dr. Lawrence?

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So we can

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[inaudible]

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[RJ:] Welcome to my little piece of
the world here at NASA headquarters

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in Washington D.C. From
this location and the

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with a help us technology
I'm able to network

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across the country to NASA

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[inaudible] Centers and to other
organizations that are interested

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in using NASA research
data and software tools

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to produce technology products
for using in the classroom, like

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[inaudible].

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Norbert has land up since June in

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[inaudible] who will share with you
two dynamic web site on hurricanes.

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Web sites that use visualization,
remote sensing and simulation tools

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to immerge you in past and
recent hurricane advance.

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And then present you
with a challenge.

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So get ready to use the tools
that will help you think

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and act like a mirage as
you explore the web site,

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earth pole centre, create by
liberty interactive learning

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and exploring the
environment developed

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by the NASA classroom
of the future.

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[RJ:] There are a lot of
going activities here,

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such as performing arts,
national owner societies to meet

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[inaudible] basket ball.

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This a great place to go school.

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In the NASA Connect website go

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to Norbert's lab then
click on the activity band.

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That will take you to the earth
pole centre, go to the controlling

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and select hurricanes.

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Here you'll find

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[inaudible] activity as forecasting
analyses and hazard mitigation.

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Click on the forecasting
desk first.

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The hurricane data
archive provides access

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to Atlantic Basin
hurricane stimulations

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from the past fifty years.

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Search for hurricane
by either name or year.

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And then run a stimulation
of this term

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as a music host the Atlantic Basin.

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Compare and contrast task
from the different years

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to identify common patterns

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of behavior among
Atlantic Basin hurricanes.

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Try your own prediction

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of the current storms
feature movement and behavior.

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Come back to few days later

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to compare your forecast against
the hurricanes actual path.

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If there is not currently
in active storm

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than you can use a past hurricane
to practice your forecasting skill.

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At the analysis desk you
will compare the line graphs

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as several storms
have been histories

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to identify common
pattern of behavior.

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You can also examine the inverse
relationship between wind speed

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and pressure in a hurricane.

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Using process satellite imagery

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from the National Hurricane Centre
you will be able to track data

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to tell in more complete
story of a Hurricane's life.

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At the Hazard navigation desk you
will be able to look in new stories

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that were published during some
past storms to give an idea

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of the warnings that were issued
as a hurricanes developed.

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Take a break

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[inaudible] shift down
to hurricanes territory

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from the safety of your own
computers screen with the

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[inaudible].

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By positioning the

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[inaudible]camp on a map
somewhere along the path

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of an impinging hurricane
you might get a

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[inaudible] to the

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[inaudible]storm.

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Asian warning to hurricane
current areas is a tricky task.

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At the running stimulator you get
to set guidelines preventive siren

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and warning sirens for a
particular coastal community.

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Our second featured website
is called the exploring

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the environment.

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This website provides the tools
you will need to complete the task

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of revealing the actions
in 1992 hurricane Andrew

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and the preparation
for tracking, analyzing

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and predicating the
course of a new hurricane

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that meet North America
in the future.

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Using remarks something images

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from the newer weather
satellites we will talk

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that hurricane progress on HR
and make predications about its

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[inaudible].

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[Children: ] Thanks for
watching NASA Connect.

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Bye!

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[RJ:] Bringing to
you with the power

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of digital learning I am sure we
can write to NASA Connect online.

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[RJ:] This web activity is great.

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I feel just like a meteorologist.

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You know speaking to meteorologist
Dr. Lawrence told us earlier

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that to predict hurricanes
he needs data,

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collected from the
hurricane hunters.

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Let's head back to Keeslar Air
force base in Biloxi Mississippi

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and meet one of the meteorologists
in the hurricane hunters.

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[RJ:] Describe the instruments
that hurricane how to use

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to collect data on a hurricane?

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[RJ:] Which signal is used to
describe the flight better?

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[RJ:] Which are the four
variables shown in the graph

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that constantly increasing?

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[RJ:] The hurricane hunters
are group of men and women

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in the United States Air Force
reserve, who fly these airplanes

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into hurricanes to
measure the storms.

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The data we collect are given

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to the National Hurricane
Centre in Miami Florida.

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We need to know exactly where
the hurricane is right now,

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how strong it is and
what the winds are like.

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[RJ:] But I mean why do
have to fly into the storm?

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Aren't satellite images enough?

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[RJ:] The National Hurricane
Centre can get very good estimates

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of hurricanes from satellite,

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but sometimes the hurricanes
don't follow the book.

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Sometimes it may be difficult
to find the eye or centre

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on satellite picture or they
may be stronger or weaker

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than they appearance satellite.

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That's where we are come in.

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The more meteorologists know what
the hurricane is doing right now,

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the better they will be able

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to forecast what it
will do in the future.

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In fact, the measurements collected

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by the hurricane hunters
makes forecast

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about twenty-five
percent more accurate

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than just using satellite
estimates alone.

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This makes a huge difference
especially when you are trying

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to evacuate people on
a coast and save lives.

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[Jennifer:] Okay though so how
do you measure a hurricane?

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[RJ:] Well Jennifer we have weather
senses mounted around the nose

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of our WC130 aircraft and
two other stations inside,

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let me show you.

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[Jennifer:] Great!

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[RJ:] We collect data
from different altitude

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or height along our flight path.

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In addition to these weather
centers we also drop another

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weather instrument with the
parachute that collects data

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from other altitude as it
falls to the atmosphere.

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All of these instruments
continuously measure temperature,

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moisture, air pressure and winds.

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The data we collect
are immediately sent

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to the national hurricane center.

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[Jennifer:] I get it.

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But how do you know where
to fly into a hurricane?

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[RJ:] Good question.

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First the National
Hurricanes Center calls us

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and gives us hurricanes forecast
of latitude and longitude.

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The navigator plots for
hurricanes positions on a chart

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than plots our flight path from
Biloxi to the storm the navigator

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and pilot then discuss the
pattern to fly in the storm.

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You see to make accurate
measurement we fly a pattern

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that looks like a next.

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We start in one corner of the
hurricane then fly to the center

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of axe which is the eye or center
of hurricane then we fly out of

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at least one hundred and
five miles on each leg

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of the axe each time
coming back to the eye.

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As we fly this pattern we collect
data on temperature, moisture,

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air pressure and winds
and see how they change.

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Two the most important elements we
measure our air pressure and winds.

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Let's look at this graph
of air pressure and wind

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that we collected in a hurricane

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[inaudible].

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[Jennifer:] Okay let me see

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if I can interpret it the
horizontal access begins

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at the centre of the eye

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of hurricane then we have
the eye wall here and way

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out here we had the other end.

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This is vertical access indicates
an increase in the intensity.

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[RJ:] You are right,
now what you know

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about the air pressure when you

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[inaudible]eye of hurricane?

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[Jennifer:] Let see.

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The intensity of the air pressure
and wind is low at the centre

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of the eye the hurricane,
but it begins to increase

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as you get close to the eye

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[inaudible].

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[RJ:] That's right.

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And the lower the air pressure
the stronger the hurricane that's

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important information you know.

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Now let's look at the
air pressure and wind

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at the eye wall what do you notice?

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[Jennifer:] Wow!

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The wind really increasing
intensity at the eye wall

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and the air pressure it to.

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[RJ:] You are right and the air
pressure continues to increase

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as you get to the outer
adjutant in hurricane.

[00:14:03.549]
But if you notice the wind
that is storms at the eye wall.

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[Jennifer:] But this is just
graph of air pressure and wind.

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You also said that you collect
data on temperature and moisture,

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what will happen if we add
that data to this graph.

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[RJ:] Let's take a look.

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[Jennifer:] Checked
it out, the intensity

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of temperature is really high
in the eye of the hurricane

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and the moisture well
it at its lowest.

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We are sure there is
lot of information

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[inaudible]

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[RJ:] It is and you know what a
long time ago weather do not have

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this line of information.

[00:14:37.389]
[RJ:] And we simply look

[00:14:38.149]
at hurricane use their
memory and say, 'Hm!

[00:14:41.309]
This reminds me of hurricane
breaker twenty six years ago they

[00:14:44.499]
were then base there forecast
for the current hurricane

[00:14:47.179]
and what hurricane
breaker did way back in.

[00:14:50.119]
Today the national hurricane
center uses the data we collect

[00:14:52.969]
from our flight to feed their
computer generated models

[00:14:56.019]
or stimulation of hurricane.

[00:14:57.579]
This computer generated models,
forecast how conditions change

[00:15:01.699]
in hurricane over time.

[00:15:03.469]
Knowing what the storm is doing
right now helps the National

[00:15:06.199]
Hurricanes Center to
predict the future path

[00:15:08.429]
and intensity of the storm.

[00:15:10.269]
[RJ:] For this information
hurricane watches

[00:15:12.179]
and warnings are set out
to people along the coast.

[00:15:14.819]
When people are back
away the safer areas

[00:15:17.239]
[inaudible] and pending
hurricane then the mission

[00:15:19.459]
of the hurricane hunters
contributes

[00:15:20.669]
to the save there life's.

[00:15:21.579]
[RJ:] My thanks to all
of the hurricane hunters.

[00:15:25.589]
You know earlier you used computer
stimulation to help you predict

[00:15:29.069]
and analyzed hurricane tracks.

[00:15:30.629]
Now how would like to calculate
were hurricane will make a ramp off

[00:15:34.879]
and then issues watches and
warnings for people on coast.

[00:15:38.579]
NASA connect travel North
to Boston Massachusetts

[00:15:41.479]
for today's classroom activity.

[00:15:47.269]
[RJ:]

[00:15:47.269]
[inaudible] to Boston
Massachusetts.

[00:15:49.389]
[RJ:] NASA Connect that just us
to show you the classroom activity

[00:15:52.119]
for the today's show
it's a game called.

[00:15:54.539]
[RJ:] Imperfect storm.

[00:15:56.159]
[Child:] Teacher's, make sure
you child load the lesson guy

[00:15:58.859]
for this activity from
the NASA connect website,

[00:16:02.049]
any you will find materials,
directions and students worksheets.

[00:16:05.909]
To begin your teacher would divide
you into teams and meteorologists.

[00:16:10.129]
It is your job to track the storm
brings out the coast of Africa.

[00:16:13.959]
Predict the possibility of landfall

[00:16:15.939]
and issue hurricane
watches and warning.

[00:16:18.309]
A hurricane watch means the
hurricane conditions are possible

[00:16:22.419]
within the next thirty-six hours.

[00:16:25.099]
A hurricane warning means the
hurricane conditions are expected

[00:16:28.389]
within the next twenty-four hours.

[00:16:31.089]
The team with the most accurate
predictions will be the winners

[00:16:34.099]
of the game.

[00:16:35.149]
First, construct your game
board following the directions

[00:16:38.759]
on your student direction sheet.

[00:16:40.759]
The

[00:16:40.839]
[inaudible] scale tells you
the classification of a storm

[00:16:44.359]
by its wind speed and this game
does represent tropical storms

[00:16:48.289]
and hurricane categories
one to five.

[00:16:51.779]
[RJ:] Right of coast of
Africa, there is tropical waves

[00:16:54.599]
that is forming low
pressure system.

[00:16:56.829]
Winds are thirty miles
per hour, the

[00:16:59.519]
[inaudible] are sixteen degrees
north and thirty-five degrees west

[00:17:03.489]
as of zero six zulu time.

[00:17:05.619]
[Child:] A cordless information
on your data sheet, and use a

[00:17:08.369]
[inaudible] scale to
classify the storm.

[00:17:11.269]
Plot the coordinate will position
of the storm on your game board

[00:17:14.649]
with the appropriate
color from the key.

[00:17:17.069]
Your teacher will give you the
next two data points as the

[00:17:19.979]
[inaudible] the core classify
and plot the storms position.

[00:17:23.729]
[RJ:] Now, let's determine
the speed the storm traveled.

[00:17:27.549]
[RJ:] If you know distance and
time, you can calculate speed.

[00:17:31.479]
Use a compass and
the knowledge 17:32

[00:17:33.929]
[inaudible] a game board

[00:17:34.279]
to determine the distance
the storm traveled.

[00:17:36.759]
Then use formula one to calculate
the speed the storm traveled.

[00:17:41.019]
[RJ:] Before issuing
watches and warnings,

[00:17:43.459]
you must calculate the
distance the storm will travel.

[00:17:47.169]
[RJ:] Use formula two
on your game board

[00:17:48.959]
to calculate the distance
the storm will travel

[00:17:51.119]
in thirty-six hours.

[00:17:52.779]
They place the appropriate
storm disc over the third point

[00:17:55.579]
on your game board and
secure it like this.

[00:17:58.939]
Use a compass to calculations and
the knowledge scale to join earth

[00:18:02.359]
from the outer edge of the disc.

[00:18:04.459]
The area between the disc

[00:18:06.099]
and a earth will receive
tropical storm force winds

[00:18:08.449]
in thirty-six hours
and hours will have

[00:18:11.489]
to identify land areas at risk.

[00:18:13.699]
Record your estimated
watch, now use formula three

[00:18:16.619]
to calculate the distance

[00:18:17.969]
in twenty-four hours
and issue a warning.

[00:18:20.219]
[RJ:] Teams we have a conflict,
a crew ship is steaming ahead

[00:18:23.849]
at fifteen miles per hour from
the Bahamas towards Miami.

[00:18:27.829]
It's your job as meteorologists
to find the location

[00:18:30.989]
of the ship beside what
action if any should be taken

[00:18:34.879]
and record your decision.

[00:18:36.879]
[RJ:] Your teacher will review
your data sheet and award points

[00:18:39.669]
for accurate calculations
and predictions.

[00:18:43.029]
The game continues as you receive
more coordinates whether data

[00:18:46.019]
and conflicts from your teacher.

[00:18:48.199]
When the winds increase to
hurricane force you will need

[00:18:50.539]
to use two discs instead of one.

[00:18:52.699]
This is because the tropical
storm force winds extend further

[00:18:55.509]
out in the hurricane force winds.

[00:18:57.979]
From this point line you will
only issue hurricane watches

[00:19:00.829]
and warnings, so make sure
you place your compass point

[00:19:03.509]
on the outer edge of the hurricane
disc, not the tropical storm disc.

[00:19:08.199]
When the hurricane
changes categories,

[00:19:10.079]
you are need to change disc.

[00:19:11.219]
As the hurricane approaches
land, use your expertise

[00:19:15.399]
to predict where will make

[00:19:16.679]
[inaudible] landfall.

[00:19:17.569]
Points are awarded to the team
with the most accurate predictions

[00:19:20.769]
and solutions to the conflicts,
so plot measure calculate

[00:19:24.759]
and use your atlas carefully.

[00:19:26.209]
The team with the most point
at the end wins the game.

[00:19:30.289]
[RJ:] Special thanks to AIWHI
chapter at Boston University,

[00:19:33.889]
for there help with this activity.

[00:19:35.729]
[RJ:] Super

[00:19:36.809]
[inaudible] show.

[00:19:36.989]
We have learnt how data collected

[00:19:41.239]
by the hurricane hunters
helps meteorologists

[00:19:44.729]
at the weather channel
predicts hurricane.

[00:19:47.569]
[RJ:] But what about NASA?

[00:19:48.399]
[RJ:] What is NASA had
to do with hurricanes?

[00:19:51.199]
[Jennifer:] I thought
you would never ask.

[00:19:53.309]
Without NASA or the
National Aeronautics

[00:19:56.339]
and Space Administration,
we wouldn't be able

[00:19:58.639]
to see earth from space.

[00:20:01.439]
NASA's bird's eye view

[00:20:02.669]
of our planet has a
revolution eyes observations

[00:20:05.369]
of the earths atmosphere,
continents and oceans.

[00:20:08.219]
A few years back, NASA launched
GL stationery satellites

[00:20:12.369]
that monitored the
weather above the earth.

[00:20:15.019]
GL stationery means that
satellite orbits spear

[00:20:18.199]
at about the same speed
the earth rotates.

[00:20:21.459]
The sunlight collects
weather data as it hovers

[00:20:23.879]
over the same point on the earth.

[00:20:25.899]
The data is been sent
back to earth for our use.

[00:20:28.919]
Thanks to NASA, today
there is world wide network

[00:20:31.999]
of satellite above our earth.

[00:20:33.919]
Collecting weather data
over the whole world

[00:20:36.399]
and transferring this data
back to us on the ground

[00:20:39.529]
but NASA is always looking towards
the future, towards developing new

[00:20:43.519]
and better technologies
for observing

[00:20:45.649]
and predicting severe
weather like hurricane

[00:20:48.299]
[inaudible]_needs us.

[00:20:49.549]
We are here at the NASA
Langley Research Center enhanced

[00:20:51.809]
in Virginia to meet a
scientist is developing a gift

[00:20:55.069]
for future meteorologist.

[00:20:57.209]
[RJ:] I will get some
better more complete picture

[00:21:04.349]
of the earth's atmosphere.

[00:21:05.729]
How does

[00:21:06.759]
[inaudible] work.

[00:21:07.319]
What is the information collected

[00:21:09.979]
about the water vapors
tell us about the storm?

[00:21:13.309]
[RJ:] NASA Langley Research Center
is developing a new technology

[00:21:16.249]
through allow meteorologist

[00:21:17.789]
to better predict how strong
the hurricane will be

[00:21:20.099]
[inaudible] will cover.

[00:21:22.519]
Scientist like

[00:21:23.209]
[inaudible] working with
professors and students

[00:21:25.179]
at university was
council and that you talk

[00:21:27.419]
[inaudible] University and the
GL stationary imaging four year

[00:21:30.669]
transform spectrometer all because

[00:21:34.279]
[inaudible] say we
caught the gifts.

[00:21:36.199]
GIFTS is actually an instrument
that will be flow aboard

[00:21:38.869]
of GL stationary satellite

[00:21:40.429]
about twenty two thousand
miles above the earth.

[00:21:43.379]
We believed our new technology
will be a gift to mankind

[00:21:46.399]
and that will enable people to
avoid the loss of their property

[00:21:50.189]
and even possibly their
lives by warning them

[00:21:52.759]
of approaching hazardous weather
such as tornados and hurricane

[00:21:56.529]
[Jennifer:] Okay, but how would
GIFTS improve weather predictions?

[00:21:59.129]
[RJ:] Well GIFTS will
provide meteorologist

[00:22:01.289]
with the complete picture
of earth's atmosphere.

[00:22:03.909]
Currently after rare observation
likes temperature, water vapor

[00:22:07.029]
and wind our team by
launching weather balloons.

[00:22:10.069]
Everyday, twice a day these
balloons rise in the atmosphere

[00:22:13.609]
and collect weather
data of the land areas.

[00:22:16.269]
However, the balloons are spaced
very far apart and give us only

[00:22:20.279]
[inaudible] data.

[00:22:21.109]
GIFTS will collect the same data
from space every ten seconds

[00:22:24.779]
over land as well as over the
sea where hurricane come from.

[00:22:28.689]
[Jennifer:] Wow, very ten seconds,
Dr. Smith, how would you do that?

[00:22:33.309]
[Dr. Smith:] Using new infrared
digital camera technology just

[00:22:36.279]
to have several thousand
times more sensors

[00:22:38.539]
in current satellite the
major atmospheric temperature,

[00:22:41.449]
water vapor and wind.

[00:22:43.069]
Let's take water vapor
for instance.

[00:22:44.709]
Water vapor is actually water in
the gaseous state so it's visible

[00:22:48.649]
to the human eye, when water vapor
molecules become liquid water

[00:22:52.149]
or ice crystals a cloud forms.

[00:22:54.299]
Current satellite measure
water in the form of clouds

[00:22:57.039]
but don't measure very well the
water vapor that causes the clouds

[00:23:00.409]
to form, being able to sense the
water vapor before cloud form will

[00:23:04.839]
allow us to predict how, when
and where storm to a form,

[00:23:08.909]
and where they will go.

[00:23:10.279]
[Jennifer:] That's great.

[00:23:11.329]
Sounds like GIFTS will provide
meteorologist with information

[00:23:14.209]
on hurricane even before they form.

[00:23:16.459]
This can only help save more lives

[00:23:18.249]
because more forecaster know
the quicker they can warn people

[00:23:21.739]
on the coast.

[00:23:22.079]
But you keep saying that
GIFTS will sense water vapor,

[00:23:26.069]
what do you mean by sense?

[00:23:28.449]
[RJ:] Oh, good question,
GIFTS measures elements

[00:23:30.849]
of the atmosphere like
temperature and water vapor

[00:23:32.929]
without touching them, this
is called Remote Sensing

[00:23:36.049]
and our eyes do it everyday.

[00:23:37.959]
Your eyes can sense or
measure how a person is feeling

[00:23:40.389]
without touching them.

[00:23:41.779]
All you need to do is look
at them and you will be able

[00:23:44.139]
to tell how they are feeling?

[00:23:45.259]
[RJ:] Oh, okay I understand
how people sense things

[00:23:47.869]
but GIFTS is an instrument,
how does it sense water vapor?

[00:23:51.149]
[RJ:] By using an Infrared Camera.

[00:23:53.409]
Let me show you this picture
of man in glasses was taken

[00:23:56.759]
with an infrared camera
seeing through the ear

[00:23:59.359]
and sensing only hard solid
objects like the wall,

[00:24:02.839]
his face and his glasses.

[00:24:05.239]
Here we see the brightness
of the man's face

[00:24:07.249]
and the darkness of his glasses.

[00:24:09.319]
This means his face
is giving all heat

[00:24:11.589]
and is relatively warm
whereas his glasses

[00:24:14.259]
and the wall are not
giving off as much heat

[00:24:16.499]
and are therefore relatively cold.

[00:24:18.709]
This picture is a good example

[00:24:20.109]
of what current satellites
can see from space.

[00:24:22.979]
The second picture was taken

[00:24:24.219]
with an infrared camera
seeing air molecules

[00:24:26.879]
as well as hard solid object.

[00:24:29.269]
Here you can see his breath
exhaled from his mouth.

[00:24:32.489]
This is because the infrared
camera senses that as breath

[00:24:35.779]
which contains water
vapor is warm relative

[00:24:38.549]
to the cold water behind him.

[00:24:40.399]
The second picture is good example

[00:24:42.129]
of how GIFTS technology will
improve weather detection.

[00:24:45.229]
[RJ:] Hey!

[00:24:45.349]
You said that the water vapor
in his breath is warm so I guess

[00:24:48.429]
that means to gives up heat.

[00:24:49.879]
[Dr. Smith] Yes, but water vapor
in clouds give off or radiate heat.

[00:24:53.979]
GIFTS can feel the heat but being
an infrared camera you can sense

[00:24:58.089]
the amount of heat the
water vapor radiates.

[00:25:00.239]
And analogy is when you close
your eyes on a partly cloudy day,

[00:25:04.679]
when the sun comes out from
behind the cloud you don't have

[00:25:07.439]
to open your eyes to
know the sun is there.

[00:25:09.899]
You can sense or feel the heat of
the sun radiating on your face.

[00:25:13.609]
Speaking of heat, remember
the graph Valerie showed you?

[00:25:16.719]
Heat or specifically temperature
is an important variable

[00:25:19.919]
when describing what is
going on in a hurricane.

[00:25:22.559]
GIFTS will measure the heat

[00:25:23.569]
from water vapor even
before clouds form.

[00:25:25.879]
This will allow us to predict
the formation and intensity

[00:25:29.439]
of up coming storms like,
how much rain will fall

[00:25:32.109]
or how severe the winds will be?

[00:25:34.129]
[Jennifer:] Cool, hurricanes
are known for there winds.

[00:25:36.979]
Will GIFTS sensor winds too.

[00:25:39.689]
[Dr. Smith] Absolutely Dr.
Lawrence told us earlier

[00:25:41.959]
that steering winds determine
where a hurricane is going?

[00:25:45.329]
There are very few
clouds away from the storm

[00:25:47.509]
where the steering winds are.

[00:25:49.239]
GIFTS measures the movement of
the water vapor at all altitudes.

[00:25:52.649]
These motions are steering
winds which determine the speed

[00:25:55.599]
and the direction of the hurricane.

[00:25:57.159]
[Jennifer:] Well, Dr. Smith GIFTS
really is a gift for forecasters

[00:26:00.659]
and for people who are affected
by severe storms like hurricanes.

[00:26:04.019]
[Dr. Smith] That's right.

[00:26:04.979]
In fact NASA got its
space flight center in

[00:26:07.809]
[inaudible] Maryland
is working with us

[00:26:09.329]
to integrate GIFTS technology
on future weather satellite.

[00:26:12.339]
Visit this website to learn
more about GIFTS technology

[00:26:15.929]
and NASA's dedication to help
science better understand

[00:26:18.899]
our planet?

[00:26:19.769]
[Jennifer:] Thanks Dr. Smith.

[00:26:21.249]
You know teaching NASA technology
like GIFTS will provide us

[00:26:24.469]
with more accurate
satellite measurements

[00:26:26.579]
by combining GIFTS
technology with the data

[00:26:28.939]
from the hurricane hunter's,

[00:26:30.249]
meteorologist like Dr.
Lawrence will be better able

[00:26:33.139]
to predict hurricanes
and help save lives.

[00:26:36.879]
Well, that's about all
we have time for today.

[00:26:39.939]
We like to thank everyone how
have made this NASA Connect

[00:26:42.729]
program possible.

[00:26:44.079]
I'm waiting to hear from you.

[00:26:45.469]
So send your comments, questions
or suggestions to NASA connect.

[00:26:49.719]
NASA Langley Research Centers
mail start 400, Hampton, Virginia,

[00:26:53.469]
23681 or e-mail me at
connect@edu.larc.nasa.gov.

[00:27:01.519]
Teachers if you would like
a video tape of this program

[00:27:04.089]
and the accompanying lesson guide
check out the NASA connect website

[00:27:08.249]
from our site you can link to
CORE the NASA Central Operation

[00:27:12.219]
of Resources for Educators or link

[00:27:14.369]
with the NASA Educator
Resource Centers Network.

[00:27:17.699]
Until next time stay connected to
math, science, technology and NASA.

[00:27:23.939]
See you then.

[00:27:25.979]
[RJ:] A hurricane gets it

[00:27:27.499]
[inaudible]

[00:27:27.609]
[RJ:] You can easily
predict a hurricane.

[00:27:34.589]
[RJ:] Well.

[00:27:34.679]
[RJ:] Well, the imperfect
storm again that allows you

[00:27:38.309]
to track a hurricane and predict
where we'll make land fall.

[00:27:42.009]
You'll have to decide who is George

[00:27:43.709]
[inaudible]?

[00:27:43.789]
[RJ:] We have weather centers not
allowing those of our airplane

[00:27:49.269]
and two weather stations inside.

[00:27:52.609]
[RJ:] Things to do have

[00:27:53.909]
[inaudible] is okay I
got we like to thank

[00:27:58.679]
who all make this
NASA connect program.

[00:28:02.079]
[RJ:] When liquid
water rise crystal

[00:28:07.489]
[RJ:] My name is

[00:28:08.889]
[inaudible] and

[00:28:09.899]
[RJ:] The impact is storm.

[00:28:12.779]
[RJ:] The consents, the amount
of the water vapor radiators.

[00:28:19.909]
[00:28:22.489]
[RJ:] Those are combination
of water and moisture.

[00:28:29.629]