Transcript for NASA Connect - Festival of Flight

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>> Hello, I'm

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[inaudible], as a
Champion Aeronautic pilot,

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I compete with gravity
almost every single day.

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If it weren't for my
skills and aircrafts,

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it will be an uneven mess.

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I enjoy the challenge
of flying fast.

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The NASA team faces challenges too.

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They encourage us all
to push our knowledge

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and skills to a higher level.

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My airplane flies over two
hundred miles per hour.

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How fast do you think, astronauts
have to go to reach earth orbit,

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two thousand, ten thousand, how
about over seventeen thousand?

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That's right seventeen thousand
five hundred miles per hour.

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Speed isn't the only challenge,
safety is very important

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and making space for less
expensive is another,

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to be a part of the team
tackling these challenges,

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you need to do well in
schools especially in math,

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science and technology.

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On today's NASA Connect, we will
be working with NASA's scientists

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and engineers to explore the
technologies; that will be needed

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by the next generation's
space explorer.

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That's you.

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So do you ready to take off
with your host, Jennifer Pulley

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and Dan Angelo, on this
episode of NASA Connect?

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Hi!

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I'm Jennifer Pulley, your
host along with Dan Angelo,

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who is joining us remotely

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from the NASA Langley Research
Centre in Hampton Virginia.

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You know, we're really excited
to be here at the U.S. Space

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and Rocket Centre in
Huntsville Alabama,

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for part of this NASA Connect.

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Teachers, make sure you have the
educated guide for today's program.

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It can be downloaded from
the NASA Connect website.

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In it, you'll find great map based
hands on activities and information

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on our instructional
technology components.

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On this episode of NASA Connect;

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we are visiting NASA
Marshall Space Flight Center

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in Huntsville Alabama.

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There, we'll meet NASA
scientist and engineers,

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who are explaining the challenges
of building the next generation

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of reusable spacecrafts.

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My friends here are going to help
me figure out, what it takes to get

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in the orbit, how can we do that?

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By learning how NASA
is giving spacecrafts

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in the orbit more safely
and less expensively.

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Can we just keep doing in
the way; we always have,

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where you know things
changed and we need to change,

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in order to continue our journey
at exploration, just think,

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we were from the Wright
Brother's first flight in 1903,

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to landing on the moon in 1969,

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as you can see people have been
dreaming a flight for ages,

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one of those dreamers with
American Robert Goddard,

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an early experiment with rockets.

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His work continues to inspire
generations of scientist.

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These rockets or the
results of Goddard's

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and other pioneer's imagination
and hard work, now it's your turn.

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You are the next generation
of space explorers.

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>> Explorers, well that's very
cool, I know, it really is that

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and you know, just as
the early space programs

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of NASA like Mercury, Gemini and
Apollo, led us to the shadow,

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the shadow leave this
to the next generation

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of space craft what's that,
that's what the show is all about

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[inaudible].

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>> All right.

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Okay. I am home, how do you get
these heavy rockets of the ground?

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>> You know, I thought
that's a really good question

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and what do we mean
by the word Heavy?

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Well what we call 'Heavy' is
just a way of measuring gravity.

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Gravity is a force of
attraction between objects.

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Everything in the universe is
attracted to everything else.

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Sometimes it's powerful
but sometimes it's weak.

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The amount of attraction really
depends on the mass of the objects.

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>> Mass?

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[inaudible], here
we have said that.

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>> Hey

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[inaudible] think how

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[inaudible] I appoint to you.

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Mass is not the same as weight.

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Think about how astronauts become
nearly weightless in space?

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When they are on the moon,
they weigh only one sixth

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of their weight on earth.

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For example a man who
weighs 180 pounds on earth,

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would weight 30 pounds on the moon.

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>> They didn't shrink, did they?

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>> Their mass is the same; so what
causes their weight to change?

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>> Gravity.

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The force of attraction between
objects, on earth we feel gravity

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because of earth's mass.

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Weight is just how we measured
gravity's pull on things.

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In space gravity is less
because we are further away

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from the earth's mass.

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The further away from a large mass
like our earth, the less gravity

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and therefore the less weight.

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>> What is this have to
do to run spacecraft?

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>> Everything at the mass of a
spacecraft determine its weight

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and the more a space craft weighs,

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the more force is
needed to reach orbit.

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>> Force? I thought we
are talking about gravity.

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>> Okay. I think, we need to
talk about some basics here.

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Lucky for us, 17th century English
scientists Sir Isaac Newton,

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explained the relationship
of mass to gravity.

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He said, "We need force
to overcome gravity".

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Newton described this
relationship as a series of laws.

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Newton helped to understanding
of gravity with his first law.

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What Newton said is easy
to understand and object

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at rest will stay at rest
unless a force moves it,

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with a spacecraft we need to come
up with the force to move it.

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>> So we need to keep the
weight and mass low, right?

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>> Correct.

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Keeping the mass low, will
mean less weight at large.

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The force of gravity on the
spacecraft is equal to the force

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of the large fat holding it up.

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What Newton called
"Balanced Forces".

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We have to unbalance these
forces to move the spacecraft.

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>> How do we do that?

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>> Well Cathy, Newton
explained in his second law,

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that 'If a force is applied to
body of mass, the body will move

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in the direction of the force'.

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Newton also described
in his third law

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that for every action there is
an equal and opposite reaction.

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The thrust of a rocket
motor is the action;

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the reaction is the
spacecraft leaving the pad.

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Thrust measures the
power of a rocket engine.

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The thrust must be greater
than the force of gravity

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that keeps a rocket
on a launch pad.

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For example, if the Thrust 'T'
of a rocket is 75 kilograms

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and the Weight of the
rocket 'W' is 50 kilograms,

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then subtracting 50 from
75 would equal 25 kilograms

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of upward force 'F'.

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To get into orbit, you need to
keep the upward force grater

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than the force of gravity.

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When you ride in amusement
park ride like the space shaft.

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Here at the space
and rocket centre?

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You are overcoming
gravity as you rise up.

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At the top, you experience
free fall,

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one micro gravity just
like the astronauts.

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You just don't stay
in free fall very long

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because you dropped back
downward as the downward force

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of gravity becomes greater
than the upward force.

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The force of gravity is
measured in units called "G".

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At the sea level that force
equals 1G, so we need more

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than one G a force
to move the rocket?

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>> Pretty much Seema, but you
know it's not easy as it sounds.

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Let's take the Saturn five
rocket of the Apollo program,

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now how much do you think
that rocket weighed at launch,

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remember how fast the
spacecraft needs to travel

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in order to reach orbit.

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>> Yes, Seventeen thousand
five hundred miles per hour.

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>> Correct, and that's over Twenty
eight thousand kilometers per hour.

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The Saturn five is taller than
the Statue of Liberty and weigh

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over six million pounds at launch.

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The Saturn five engines
had to produce over seven

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and half million pounds of
thrust to have an upward force

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to overcome the downward
force of gravity.

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>> Okay, I get it, if we keep
the weight of the rocket down

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and we won't needed much
engine thrust to move it.

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>> Right, you guy's are so
smart; you know engineers deal

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with this all the time.

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They use map to compare the
vehicle weight to the thrust

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of the engines, and this
can be written as a ratio

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and a ratio is just a simple way
of comparing one thing to another.

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In this case, vehicle
weight compared to thrust.

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So let's talk about
the Saturn five.

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Let's say it weighs
a million pounds

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and it produces a
million pounds of thrust.

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The ratio for that; would then be
one to one and won't go any where.

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>> The Saturn five engines created
seven and half million pounds

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of thrust and the vehicle
weighed six million pounds.

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Yeah, so that's a ratio
of seven point five to six

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or let's see five to four.

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>> Exactly, now you see
how important it is,

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to build rockets more light weight,

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a couple of ways NASA scientist
and engineers tackle this problem,

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is by using light weight materials

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and designing more
efficient engines.

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Today NASA is working on the next
generation of a useable spacecraft

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or launch vehicle system.

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We call it, the space launch
initiative or SLI for short.

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Later we'll work with NASA
researchers to learn how they deal

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with these challenges
but first let's visit Dan

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for this shows web-based activity.

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[Dan:] Thanks Jennifer.

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Today we are visiting
the Challenger Center

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in Chattanooga Tennessee, the
student from the Chattanooga school

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of arts and scientist;
will be helping us today

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on this web-based activity.

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The Challenger Center
provides students

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and teachers several
stimulated space missions.

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During the missions, students
work as a team to solve problems

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and apply math, science
and technology concepts

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to real life situations.

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>> Certainly this is want to

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[inaudible].

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>> Each year the center provides

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over eight thousand students
an opportunity to rendezvous

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with the comet, work on a space
station or take a voyage to mars.

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We are using the center's
computer lab

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to highlight this
episode's web activity.

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Earlier today, we talked
about the importance

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of the map concept the ratios
to scientist and engineers.

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On the NASA Connect website,
you can learn more about ratios

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by clicking on dance domain.

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To find the link to
the show's instruction

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or technology activity azone just
for teachers and the career zone,

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where you can meet some
of our show's guest

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and learn about their jobs.

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Selecting this show's instructional
activity, will take you

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to river deeps, destination map,
mastering skills and concept five.

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Your point activities, that make
learning about ratio is fine

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and its free to NASA
Connect educator.

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Click on ratios and proportions,
teacher you will find a variety

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of clever ways that
teach about ratio.

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From the connect website, you
can also order a great CD,

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that will have you designing
your own plane and learning more

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about ratios in no time.

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Just select the exploring
aeronautic CD

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from NASA's core website.

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On the main menu, you can select
the resource center to find

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out about the history applied
or pick the activity center

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to learn more about
the lift and drag.

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Jennifer, I been having fun
designing aircraft using the

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exploring aeronautic CD.

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So tell me, what have you found
out about the next generation

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of re-useable spacecraft, you
know the one I'll be driving.

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>> Wait minute

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[inaudible].

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Don't you have to finish school
and a few other things first?

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>> Well we have, you
know I mean I think so.

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>> Okay, Okay I will get
back to work on that.

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>> Okay you do that.

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Meanwhile we got a
lot of work to do and

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[inaudible] help me out.

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>> What is your usable
launch vehicle or RRV?

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>> Why is spacecraft
need to be that way?

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>> How is the RRV
projected during the entry?

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[Jennifer:] Those are
some good questions,

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now let's get some
answers from Cathy

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[inaudible].

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She is an engineer here at NASA

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[inaudible], Cathy!

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What is with the NASA's
design challenges

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over the next generation
of spacecraft?

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[Cathy:] Jennifer, have a
great bunch of talented folks

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from around the country,
helping us to choose best design.

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Some work for the government,
some work for private companies

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and others for universities.

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Also I was designing the whole
system for the next generation

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of the usable launch vehicles.

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[Jennifer:] Okay, we keep
saying next generation.

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What was the first generation?

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[Cathy:] Good question, the space
shuttle is the world's first

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reusable launch vehicle.

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The space shuttle

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[inaudible] design to be
launched again and again,

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that is our first generation of
reusable launch vehicles or RRV

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and that's why we talk
about the next genRRV.

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[Jennifer:] So what are the new
things you are doing to get ready

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for the replacement
of the space shuttle?

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[Cathy:] What the most
important thing is, safety.

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The challenge is to make
vehicle as light as possible

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without reducing safety
or strength.

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[Jennifer:] You know
that's understandable.

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So I guess being light weight is
that the only thing that matters.

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[Cathy:] That's right, a part of
system may actually be heavier is

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[inaudible] made the whole system
pay for a less expensive operate.

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The weight increase and might
reduced cost, help make the

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[inaudible] job of paper.

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We definitely want to keep
space travel routine and

[00:13:52.590]
[inaudible] for those next
generation space explorers.

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>> There are many things for the
SOI programs considering task.

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Different types of engines,
fuels and vehicles shapes

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and these are only some of the
parts, of the entire system.

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We got the whole system, the
architecture and we need everything

[00:14:08.720]
from mission planning
to launch on obit

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[inaudible] and getting the
vehicle ready to fly again.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Popular!

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sounds pretty challenging.

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So have you

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[inaudible] with any design job.

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>> First we had to decide what we
want to do in space before we start

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to designing, that's the season
next generation RRV is doing two

[00:14:26.890]
main things -- getting

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to the international
space station and taking

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[inaudible] into obit.

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We select preliminary
design that bests our needs.

[00:14:35.940]
One challenge vehicle
designer is based is what type

[00:14:38.250]
of engine to use.

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Some engines use Kerosene
and liquid Oxygen,

[00:14:42.470]
other mainly use the
Hydrogen and liquid Oxygen.

[00:14:45.770]
Each option offers advantages.

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We launched some interesting
engines, that's high in performance

[00:14:51.430]
of the main engine have the major
influence on the whole space

[00:14:54.780]
[inaudible], they influence
safety, weight, maintenance,

[00:14:57.740]
preparation time and cost.

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[Jennifer:] So what are the
other things we can look

[00:15:01.690]
for in the next generation RRV?

[00:15:03.030]
>> A one of things that you might
see are the reusable boosters,

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that

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[inaudible].

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>> A booster

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[inaudible], a booster is
the primary of first stage

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for multi-stage rocket.

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[Jennifer:] Okay that make sense,

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but you said the boosters
are going to fly back.

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How do they do that?

[00:15:19.750]
>> Well they have home board
computers for navigation

[00:15:22.100]
and they also have onboard
computers that works

[00:15:24.540]
[inaudible] system,
alerting Astronauts,

[00:15:26.930]
the people of the ground whenever
there is in kind of problem.

[00:15:29.610]
>> Right that's really important.

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Now, besides the onboard computer
systems, how also you can improve

[00:15:34.130]
[inaudible].

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>> Well, on the space
craft goes from space

[00:15:38.300]
to our atmosphere friction
with the air can heat

[00:15:40.720]
up the outside the vehicle to
temperatures over sixteen hundred

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[inaudible] that's hard
enough to not still.

[00:15:46.880]
The part of the vehicle
that protects

[00:15:48.060]
to cruise are the Thermal
Protection System or TPS.

[00:15:51.800]
[Jennifer:] So what is the
Thermal Protection System made

[00:15:53.590]
out and how does it work?

[00:15:55.280]
>> Currently we are looking
at a number of materials

[00:15:57.950]
that all Thermal Protection
Systems work in two basic ways.

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The first way is absorption, like
a pot holder you design a skin

[00:16:04.740]
of the space craft so that it can
not absorb the heat of reentry

[00:16:07.510]
without damaging the vehicle.

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The second way is radiation the
out side of the vehicle is designed

[00:16:13.040]
to radiate the heat
from reentry like a

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[inaudible] protect

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[inaudible] fire.

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Some designs will combine
both of these approaches

[00:16:19.510]
to protect the Astronaut
in spacecraft

[00:16:21.350]
from the heat of reentry.

[00:16:23.120]
The

[00:16:23.320]
[inaudible] has to thin and
light but still strong enough

[00:16:26.190]
to do the job over and over again.

[00:16:28.350]
[Jennifer:] Cathy
that sounds difficult.

[00:16:29.880]
[Cathy:] Well, it is
challenging, but remember

[00:16:31.910]
[inaudible] is our number concern.

[00:16:34.480]
For the next generations spacecraft
system we will have other

[00:16:37.340]
changes too.

[00:16:38.490]
[Jennifer:] What sort of changes?

[00:16:39.500]
[Cathy:] Well for instance to
space shuttle will carry both cargo

[00:16:42.110]
and Astronauts for the
next generation RRV,

[00:16:45.310]
we want to divide those jobs.

[00:16:47.570]
We are looking at two vehicles --
our cargo ship with no crew onboard

[00:16:51.630]
and a smaller crew
transport vehicle.

[00:16:53.860]
Protecting the crew is much
easier when they are not part

[00:16:56.810]
of a huge cargo vehicle.

[00:16:58.850]
A crew transport vehicle has a
rocket engine have to get away

[00:17:01.630]
from the launch vehicle,
in case of any problems.

[00:17:04.800]
The Cargo vehicle doesn't need
all those equipment required

[00:17:07.590]
to protect people, so
they can carry more cargo.

[00:17:10.490]
It's really a win-win situation.

[00:17:12.280]
[Jennifer:] That's seemed
for Cathy, thank you so much

[00:17:14.250]
for all the information on the
space launching initiative.

[00:17:16.960]
Now before we move on
it's time for a few

[00:17:20.000]
[inaudible] review.

[00:17:20.690]
If you are watching the show on
video-tape, pause the tape now

[00:17:23.780]
and discuss these questions.

[00:17:25.450]
>> [inaudible] is your
usable launch vehicle or RRV.

[00:17:29.200]
>> [inaudible] based

[00:17:29.470]
[inaudible] to be right way.

[00:17:31.370]
>> How is the ROV
protected during the entry?

[00:17:35.070]
>> Now its time for our viewers to
get hand on experience building

[00:17:38.470]
[inaudible].

[00:17:38.470]
>>NASA connect

[00:17:45.950]
[inaudible] to show you this
programs hand on activity.

[00:17:52.730]
>> You can dial up the

[00:17:54.100]
[inaudible] and listen
to some materials

[00:17:56.920]
from the NASA connect website.

[00:18:00.800]
>> Here are the main objectives.

[00:18:02.830]
>> Students well,

[00:18:04.520]
gather statistical data
find the optimum ratio

[00:18:07.250]
for the best vehicle performance,

[00:18:09.120]
explore mathematical
problem solving

[00:18:11.130]
and explore mathematical
models through graphic.

[00:18:13.780]
>> Here are some terms
you need to know.

[00:18:16.440]
>> Proportion, is the actual
driving forward or away.

[00:18:20.030]
Trust, is a force produced
by a rocket engine and reacts

[00:18:23.160]
into a high velocity exhaust gas.

[00:18:25.820]
Kinetic energy is energy in motion.

[00:18:28.510]
A momentum is a directional
measurement of it object's motion.

[00:18:32.190]
It's tendency to continue moving
in a particular direction.

[00:18:36.270]
>> Good morning class.

[00:18:37.150]
>>Good morning Ms

[00:18:38.130]
[inaudible].

[00:18:38.200]
>> Today

[00:18:38.890]
[inaudible] got together
statistical data

[00:18:41.040]
so that we can determine the
optimum ratio of our BSC rocket.

[00:18:46.060]
>> Students for organize
into group of four,

[00:18:48.450]
with each student taking our one
of four jobs as the launch officer;

[00:18:52.110]
the launch officer, data recorder
and measurement technician.

[00:18:56.150]
Roles can be rotated
after every trial.

[00:18:59.130]
Each group will construct
the launch facility at

[00:19:01.730]
[inaudible] 20 meters
of masking tape

[00:19:03.560]
on the ground in a straight line.

[00:19:05.510]
Divide the length of masking
tape into 10 cm interval.

[00:19:09.460]
Place the shoe box at the
one end of the masking tape,

[00:19:12.120]
the rocket will replace
against that each time.

[00:19:14.880]
It may be necessary for
the pre-launch officer

[00:19:17.160]
in the group place scrabble

[00:19:18.710]
or dirt inside the
box to stabilize it.

[00:19:21.440]
Begin testing by using a push pin

[00:19:23.930]
[inaudible] a two cm baking sort
of packet to the bottom of the

[00:19:27.290]
[inaudible].

[00:19:27.820]
The directions to assemble
the baking set of packet,

[00:19:30.340]
can be found in the educated guide.

[00:19:32.640]
Remember each rocket must be

[00:19:34.680]
[inaudible] one hundred and
fifteen no leaders of vinegar.

[00:19:37.930]
>> Try to give vinegar

[00:19:38.900]
[inaudible] itself?

[00:19:39.700]
>> Slide the core which
baking sort of packet attached

[00:19:42.640]
into the neck of the bottom firmly.

[00:19:45.670]
The launch officer will rapidly
shake the rocket three times

[00:19:49.440]
to start the reaction of

[00:19:50.910]
[inaudible] and vinegar.

[00:19:52.550]
Quickly place the core end

[00:19:53.740]
of the rocket against the
shoe box and move away.

[00:19:56.540]
>> [inaudible].

[00:19:57.960]
>> The measurement technician
will call after this and travel

[00:20:02.680]
by the rocket and the data
recorder will write the distance

[00:20:05.840]
on the distance data chart.

[00:20:07.600]
The pre-launch officer will
then prepare the rocket

[00:20:10.120]
for the next trial.

[00:20:11.410]
Repetitive all the trials
have been completed.

[00:20:14.140]
Each group of proxy data on to
a graph using a different color

[00:20:17.420]
for each group.

[00:20:18.800]
Students for comparative groups
average data and analyze the shape

[00:20:22.150]
of the graph to determine the best
ratio of baking soda to vinegar.

[00:20:25.780]
>> [inaudible] in
comparing the data

[00:20:27.800]
at what point do they
recorded data start increasing.

[00:20:32.970]
Erica!

[00:20:33.610]
[Erica:] It started
increasing immediately.

[00:20:36.360]
>> Why would it be important for us
to find the optimum amount of fuel

[00:20:40.270]
to use for any rockets Ann!

[00:20:42.550]
[Ann:] Because you don't
want to carry more hours

[00:20:44.520]
[inaudible].

[00:20:44.680]
>> Teachers, if you
would like help it,

[00:20:47.500]
they can show the rocket
lesson simply in list the help

[00:20:50.280]
of your AIAA Mentor who will
be glad to help your class

[00:20:53.800]
with these activities.

[00:20:55.240]
AIAA stands for American Institute
of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

[00:21:00.300]
Boy those kids of like
they are having fun.

[00:21:03.560]
>> No Jennifer I do not say
having a blast, but I wanted to.

[00:21:11.050]
>> The folks in NASA martial
having awesome program

[00:21:13.650]
for next generations explorers

[00:21:15.320]
to give a real feel
for rocket science.

[00:21:17.230]
It's called the Student
Launch Initiative, SLI,

[00:21:19.850]
just like the Space
Launch Initiative.

[00:21:22.880]
Initiative is the key word because
these students design, build, test,

[00:21:28.590]
launch and reuse a rocket
carrying a half round experiment.

[00:21:34.240]
The experience that you're looking
in their rockets take off and store

[00:21:38.880]
for one and half to over
three kilometers high.

[00:21:41.500]
>> [inaudible].

[00:21:42.000]
>> Students from Pennsylvania
area high schools

[00:21:45.330]
and universities participated

[00:21:47.180]
in NASA's first Students
Launch Initiative.

[00:21:50.120]
These students used math,
science and technology to design

[00:21:53.530]
and build their rockets,
to develop websites

[00:21:56.140]
and to applied budgeting
and planning principles.

[00:22:00.090]
>> Jennifer I really want to be
part of one of these SLI team.

[00:22:09.090]
[00:22:18.820]
>> [inaudible] your teams,
where are your teammates?

[00:22:24.310]
>> Jennifer, Robert, there he is.

[00:22:31.740]
>> What is the computer simulation?

[00:22:33.900]
How our computers simulations
used to design spacecraft?

[00:22:37.980]
>> Our math and science
used to plan

[00:22:39.970]
for the next generation scenario.

[00:22:42.510]
>> The team and I at the
Collaborative Engineering Centre

[00:22:45.270]
or CEC here at NASA Marshal.

[00:22:48.780]
The CEC is a facility that
able scientists and engineers

[00:22:52.980]
from across the country to
study spacecraft architecture

[00:22:56.700]
in a virtual environment kind

[00:22:58.590]
of like a chat room before
they build the vehicles.

[00:23:01.570]
They do this by using
computers simulations.

[00:23:04.400]
Cathy, if I remember correctly,

[00:23:05.830]
our computer simulation is a
powerful tool that allows engineers

[00:23:09.600]
such as yourself to input
data into a program.

[00:23:12.820]
[Cathy:] Exactly, we get to
play or I mean study what else

[00:23:16.390]
with different types of engines,
structures, thermal protection

[00:23:20.020]
and whatever we want to test
just by changing the data.

[00:23:22.670]
>> That's great.

[00:23:23.310]
Now, what do you have the
kids working on today?

[00:23:25.830]
[Cathy:] Earlier we talked
about how different fuel choices

[00:23:28.460]
which propel the spacecrafts
affect the launch weighted vehicle,

[00:23:32.110]
by using computer simulations
we can get a real time idea

[00:23:34.900]
of how these choices affect
the whole architecture.

[00:23:38.040]
The computer simulation shows
how one change can repel

[00:23:40.960]
through the entire system
like waves on a pond.

[00:23:44.060]
>> I get it computer
simulation allow designers

[00:23:46.920]
to see how one choice can
affect the big picture.

[00:23:49.800]
[Cathy:] You have some another
reason why simulations are

[00:23:52.640]
so useful, is because we have
over 20 years of experience

[00:23:56.180]
with the space shuttle.

[00:23:57.670]
>> I see, so by looking at
similar numbers and class

[00:24:00.630]
from the shuttle program we
have a starting off point

[00:24:03.780]
to begin testing new ideas.

[00:24:05.560]
[Cathy:] Well yes, sometimes
of course we have to use,

[00:24:08.670]
engineers have to use thier
estimated skills to come

[00:24:11.120]
up with the starting point
for the calculations.

[00:24:13.200]
>> So well, can you
give me an example?

[00:24:15.060]
[Cathy:] Sure.

[00:24:15.680]
Suppose you are looking at
TPS, Thermo Protection Systems.

[00:24:19.380]
Let's say about a low maintenance
TPS system weighs three thousand

[00:24:22.820]
kilograms and the total weight

[00:24:24.390]
of the vehicle is seventy
five thousand kilograms.

[00:24:26.940]
How would you estimate the
Thermal Protection System weight

[00:24:29.440]
to the vehicle weight ratio?

[00:24:31.410]
>> Okay. Let's see, three
thousand kilograms TPS weight

[00:24:35.720]
to seventy five thousand
kilograms of Vehicle weight.

[00:24:40.080]
By simplify and reduce
that one to twenty five.

[00:24:43.560]
[Cathy:] Exactly, we might
find out one systems is heavier

[00:24:46.950]
but the reduced maintenance cost
might still make it a good idea.

[00:24:49.410]
>> Of course eventually you have

[00:24:50.820]
to build the test systems
and hard work done.

[00:24:53.230]
Think of the time in many step,
testing with the simulations first.

[00:24:56.440]
>> And there is a
lot more creativity.

[00:24:58.500]
>> Absolutely.

[00:24:59.910]
>> See how they are
trying different Thermal

[00:25:01.170]
Protection Systems.

[00:25:02.770]
Look what it does to the
vehicle weight and structure too.

[00:25:05.840]
>> What do we do before
we had this technology?

[00:25:08.750]
>> Well for one thing we
did calculations by hand.

[00:25:11.850]
We also done and tested the
whole lot more hardware,

[00:25:15.040]
because that was okay then.

[00:25:16.900]
That now engineers have so
many more tools to help them.

[00:25:20.040]
But they still must use
math, science and technology.

[00:25:23.680]
First there has to be Computer
Scientists and Mathematicians

[00:25:26.630]
to design a software and
hardware that is needed

[00:25:29.040]
for computer stimulations.

[00:25:30.940]
Remember the computer
only calculates the data

[00:25:33.320]
but the engineers need sharp
math and science skills

[00:25:35.820]
to analyze the results and
decide on the final design.

[00:25:39.410]
This space launch initiative
will get a space craft to orbit,

[00:25:42.330]
more safely and less expensively.

[00:25:44.570]
That's going to take a team effort.

[00:25:46.720]
And it's not too early for
your next generation explorers

[00:25:49.250]
to start getting ready.

[00:25:50.610]
>> Doing well in school, it's
the most important start.

[00:25:52.800]
>> I couldn't agree with you

[00:25:54.050]
[inaudible].

[00:25:54.360]
Thank you so much Cathy for
sharing all the information you did

[00:25:57.210]
with us.

[00:25:57.480]
>> No. no, no problem about that.

[00:25:58.340]
>> We really appreciate that
the kids had a great time

[00:26:00.660]
and I am sure we had a really hard
time pulling them away from you.

[00:26:03.320]
>> Oh thanks for coming.

[00:26:04.350]
>> You are welcome.

[00:26:05.360]
>> Hey why we are here?

[00:26:06.580]
Let's do our last

[00:26:07.610]
[inaudible].

[00:26:07.690]
>> What is a computer stimulation?

[00:26:11.290]
How do computer stimulations
used to design space craft?

[00:26:14.910]
>> How our math and science used to
plan for the next generation ROV.

[00:26:19.710]
>> If you are watching on tape you
can pause and discuss and teachers

[00:26:24.030]
if you would like a video
tape of this program

[00:26:26.500]
and be accompanying educator guide.

[00:26:28.870]
Check out the NASA Connect website.

[00:26:31.330]
Well done that

[00:26:32.780]
[inaudible] up this
episode of NASA Connect.

[00:26:35.280]
So the question of the
day is, are you ready

[00:26:38.000]
to join the next generations
of space explorers?

[00:26:40.550]
>> You better believe
that Jennifer.

[00:26:41.900]
>> We would like to
thank everyone who helped

[00:26:44.000]
to make this program possible.

[00:26:45.690]
If you have comments or
suggestions about this episode

[00:26:48.590]
or about NASA Connect in general,
e-mail us at connect@lrc.nasa.com.

[00:26:55.710]
>> Or pick up the pen and
write us at NASA Connect,

[00:26:59.040]
NASA Centre for Distance Learning.

[00:27:00.930]
NASA learning Research centre, mail

[00:27:02.660]
[inaudible] four hundred,

[00:27:03.670]
[inaudible] Virginia
two three six eight one.

[00:27:06.820]
>> You can also went to NASA
call the NASA Centre Operations

[00:27:09.980]
of Resources for Educators
to view this

[00:27:12.330]
and past shows call the NASA
quest at quest.nasa.com.

[00:27:17.420]
Until next time stay
connected to math

[00:27:20.190]
>> science, technology

[00:27:22.260]
>> And NASA.

[00:27:23.650]
>> See ya

[00:27:26.170]
>> Bye

[00:27:28.220]
>> Thanks Jennifer.

[00:27:33.670]
Today we are visiting
the challenger centre in

[00:27:36.210]
[inaudible] .

[00:27:36.210]
The students of the

[00:27:38.430]
[inaudible] okay, sorry.

[00:27:41.090]
>> The amount of attraction really
depends on the mass of the objects.

[00:27:50.090]
[00:27:51.800]
>> Mass?

[00:27:52.870]
[ Laughter ]

[00:27:53.870]
[00:27:55.020]
>> More force is needed
to reach orbit.

[00:27:56.960]
[ Laughter ]

[00:27:58.370]
>> Orbit, Orbit.

[00:28:01.090]
>> How can we do that?

[00:28:03.210]
>> By learning how NASA is getting
space craft into orbit less

[00:28:11.430]
[inaudible] the more force
is needed to reach orbit.

[00:28:14.120]
[ Laughter ]

[00:28:15.430]
>> Orbit, orbit, orbit,
sorry I can't.

[00:28:17.850]
>> Captioning funded by the
MNC foundation of America.

[00:28:25.450]