Transcript for NASAConnect - Recipes For the Future


[Van:] Oh, hi Shelley.

[Shelley:] Oh my gosh Van!

What is going on here?

You look as if you were
in the third fight,

you are the loosing
side, what are you doing?

[Van:] Well I was
making some cookies

for the NASA Connect Cast Party.

That turn out going
to be hard though.

[Shelley:] Hard is
an understatement,

Van you got some real
problems here.

[Van:] I thought may be you
could give me hand figure

out what I am doing wrong.

[Shelley:] Well is
this your recipe?

[Van:] Right.

[Shelley:] I can hardly
even read it?

[Van:] Well it's a copy
of a copy of a copy

that my great grandmother
wrote a long time ago.

[Shelley:] Oh man!

Then you got some problems.

And maybe - right now
WVEC channel thirteen,

they are having a daily cooking
show and if we are lucky,

we maybe able to actually catch
the program and have something

that too help you
with your problem.

[Van:] Okay.

[Announcer:] Coming to you from

[inaudible] Virginia and the
WVEC channel thirteen studios;

it's cooking with the stars
with your host Britney


[Britney:] Hi everybody with me is
this week's co-host Daphne Reid.

Daphne have you ever picked
up a copy of Bon Aperitif

and saw a picture of a delicious
loaf of bread and said hey,

I can make that, all I have to
do is follow the recipe well.

You do and guess what it's
not delicious it's a disaster.

[Stephanie] Yeah!

That's what happened to us
last time we made some bread.

Last time we did our
show on Italian food,

this is what happened.

[Britney] Yeah!

I think that the

[inaudible] bread dough
got the better of us.

[Stephanie] Yeah here to help us
analyze the problem is a chemist

from the NASA Langley who
specializes in developing recipes

for future aerospace material.

Our guest this week and our
friend Doctor Catherine


>> Hi Catherine.

How are you?

>> Hey! That's Catherine


I know her from work.

>> Catherine great chefs are like
on some levels great chemists.

Now we thought because you are a
chemist you might have some insight

into what we did wrong last time.

>> Now would you explain how
a chemist follows a recipe?

[Catherine:] Glad to help, first
at NASA Langley a first step is

to determine the requirements
of the application.

In your case, you need
bread for an Italian meal.

Making bread involves
a chemical change.

This is different from physical
change such as boiling of water

that is water becomes
steam when heated,

but once steam cools it
becomes liquid again.

There is no change in a chemical
identity of the substance.

The chemical change
reaction involves conversion

of one substance into another.

Mixing and baking bread is an
example of a chemical change

because the flour the sugar

and other ingredients are
converted into a loaf of bread.

Daphne, Britney having the
proper ingredients is important.

However, also knowing
the properties

of the ingredients
is just as important

and producing a successful recipe.

Knowing the properties can also
help you determine what went wrong.

What were your ingredients?

>> We have flour, water,
yeast, sugar and salt.

[Catherine:] Let's take a look at
the properties of your ingredients.

Flour contains gluten
forming proteins

which allow the bread to rise.

Water helps the gluten make the
dough rise, yeast causes the bread

to rise and imparts flavor.

Sugar provides food for the yeast
and salt slows yeast activity.

What was wrong with your bread?

>> Well here is ours and it sure
looks like bread didn't rise.

>> No, I bought a loaf Picaci
this morning from the Chesapeake

[inaudible] bakery.

>> Let's take a look
at the difference here.

>> Now. What went wrong?

[Catherine:] There are
three possibilities.

Too much salt, yeast twisted
or insufficient rise time.

A successful recipe is determined
by using the proper ingredients,

using the right amounts,
mixing the ingredients properly

and heating and cooling
as required.

It sort of like what we are
do at NASA Langley for recipes

of materials used in airplane
and space vehicle research.

This means proper ingredients,

correct processing,
fabrication analysis.

>> Catharine thanks for
bringing some science to our show

and helping us clear
up our Picaci flop.

Well there you have it
the right recipe begins

with the right ingredients.

>> Yeah! We have also
learned from Catherine

that knowing the properties of
those ingredients can help the cook

that will predict what will happen

when the ingredients are
mixed substituted or changed.

Our cooking and yours is
likely to be more successful

when you know this, especially
when you are trying to cook

up a recipe for the future.


>> You know Van, I think Daphne
Reid have a very important

message there.

Basically, she was saying
is that a good cook is more

than having just a recipe
and the ingredients,

a good cook is like
a kitchen scientist.

You know in the end it is
like your gathering data

from your cooking trials and
then making informed decisions

about what ingredients to you use,
how much to use, how to mix it

up and how to bake it?

You know I wonder if Doctor Cathy

[inaudible] at NASA
Langley might be able

to help us with your recipe.

>> That be great, may be she could
even help me rewrite my recipe

these cookies are just
so hard and crumbling.

>> Oh yeah.

Okay what's in lets do this.

Why don't you stay here and clean
this up, get more ingredients

out mean while I'll head over to
NASA Langley see if I can catch

up with Cathy in the colleagues
'cause they are doing some really

neat things with aerospace
materials and structures

and in fact they are really
cooking up recipes for the future.

>> You know that sounds
like a pretty good title

for our NASA Connect show.

>> You are right.

Hey and gang how about this,
we will leave him here,

you and I lets head on over
to NASA Langley and see

if we can find some things
out there that's going

to help Van in his recipe.

Well, this a research and
NASA Langley to learn more

about the recipes they are
cooking up for aerospace structures

and materials and we will see if
any of their steps might be helpful

to Van, so take careful
notes and while we are

at it we'll find a thing or two
about the composite material

that NASA Langley cooking
up to build the airplane

and space vehicles of the future

>> And as we go through the
show, you will be challenged

by an experiment and composite
materials that students performed

[inaudible] Middle School
in Chesapeake, Virginia.

Oh! And when you see this
banner; that's your clue to check

out from more fun
information and activities

on the NASA Connect website.

>>That's right and be thinking

about questions during this
program, because you are going

to have a chance to call
and then e-mail in questions

to our NASA researchers.

Evan let's go cracking.


>> Cathy hello, thank for
letting me come by here today.

>> Hi! Shelley no trouble, this
is my colleague Roberto Canna

from the composite
fabrications laboratory.

>> Pleasure to meet you.

What's up?

>> Well, what's up is
my friend Van Hughes,

he is trying to cook some thing
up and is having little problem

with his cookie recipe, since
that his cookies are way too hard,

they are not chewy and
they crumble very easily.

Well, Cathy we saw you
today on the WVECU cooking

with the stars program and
thought may be here at NASA Langley

where you are involved with the
composite materials laboratory

that there might be a recipe
that you have that could help us

or something that's you do
that could give us some advice

to help Van and his problem.

>> Burt I would be glad to help,
in fact the process that Burt

and I fall under, the Composite
Fabrication Laboratory might offer

solutions to Vans problems.

>> Oh! That's great, but
now I've got a question.

What is a composite material

and just how is a
composite material made?

>> A composite material is made
of two more different materials.

Composite materials have
been throughout history,

for instance ancient Egyptians
used the very basic composite

material in the construction
of there houses drawn that.

They can buy these few materials
to make a third stronger one.

>> One of our goals that
NASA Langley is to develop,

stronger more durable lighter
weight materials for use

in airplanes and space vehicles.

NASA Langley research center is
the agency's centre of excellence

for structures and
material research.

We can identify five steps
in composite development.

They may use similar
steps in planning

and preparing and cooking recipe.

Identify the application, develop
materials to meet requirements,

process the material,
test the material

and make structural components.

>> Okay. How about it, could
you give me some examples

of how these steps work
for composite development?

>> Glad to, a mix plan per step.

NASA has challenged their
researchers to find ways

to make planes and
space vehicles tougher,

stronger, lighter, cheaper.

Our job is researchers, is to
develop new materials or to improve

on existing materials.

Our work at NASA Langley
involves development

of characterization of parlors.

A parlor is a huge chain like
molecule built up by the reputation

of small simple chemical unit.

Parlors can be flexible
or stiff, tougher,

brittle, strong but lively.

>> Okay so what's the next step?

>> We will first start
the application

with polymer need to be reinforced.

Typically it's done
with the carbon fiber.

And one way we combined
the carbon fiber

with the polymer is a
like free preged tape

>> Free Preged tape?

>> Let me show you what I mean?

The principle of free pregging goes
back to early days of aviation.

The plans were made up of a wood
structured covered with the skin

of fabric coated glue.

This combination of the glue

and the fabric will
reform composite material.

We develop the prepared material

that combines the
NASA Langley develop

to present system thirty-five
with the carbon fiber iron seven.

This material developed
for application

with the commercial
Super Sonic Aircraft.

To fabricate iron seven thirty
five preferred many aims

of iron seven carbon fibers
are introduced into depend.

And it depend, the fibers go
over and under as series of bars.

And the raisin solution is poured

into the pan the bars help force
the raisin into the fiber bundles.

We now quoted fibers exit the
pan and go through a series

of ovens and nip rolls.

The oven and nip rollers process
the material into uniform tape

that is taken up to begin.

This tape is

[inaudible] free preg and can not
be used to make composite parts.

As layers in the new
material of process together

that creates a tough structure
that is lighter than metal

but is strong and is stiff.

>> Well this has been fascinating,
but what pointers you might be able

to get to me so I can pass on
to Van with his cooking problem.

>> Even the Van requirements
were soften

to a cookie I like man
using half butter and half

[inaudible] making the
cookies that three hundred

and fifty degrees
Fahrenheit in a preheated oven

for about eight to twelve minutes.

>> Also to make the cookies
more chewy he could -

you oatmeal raisins
or truffle chips.

Well I also want to make a
composite material even to test

to see how well it performs though
it is also recommended Van tests

his cookies before
serves them to anyone.

>> Sure I recommended to talk to
David Magellan and Dr. Ted Johnson.

They have a lot of
experience in area testing.

>> Fantastic.

>> I am going to give Van with the
information that you shared with me

than I am going to be all
my ways, thanks so much

for all your help
today, appreciate it.

>> You are welcome.

>> Okay then did you give out that?

>> I figured out some of the
ingredients and now I have

to figure out is the
quantity of the ingredients.

And then I will focus on
Cathy and Roberto's ideas

on the oven temperature,
baking time and the properties.

>> Okay great and meanwhile
I am going to head on over

to the materials testing
and see what I can find out

and I will give you a call back.

>> Okay but it is not like it has
some butter burning on the stove.

So I thought you ...

>> Hi. Dave

>> Hi Cathy Collins,
have you becoming over.

Seems like your friend Van has
to test out his cookie recipe.

>> See like different brand as
it just out as cookie recipe.

>> Yes Dave, he has
a little problem,

he is trying to get a cookie
that is taste good is chewy

and it doesn't crumbles.

So I thought maybe if I can
never hear and solve the process

to testing new materials maybe
there some that I can learn

from this to share with Van,
do you think he could help?

>> I think so, Todd my both
test and analyze structures

for new aerospace and vehicles.

I usually test the room temperature
and Todd actually tests them

at extreme temperatures.

Since I use the test of room
temperature, the components

of add test are larger than
those that Ted uses in his

[inaudible] structural tests.

What typically happens here is been
component of the vehicle structure

that were interested in as
built and shipped to our labs.

Within a five centers to it to
help us understand how it behaves

on the different loads of forces.

This panel here is the part of
the key role or bottom section

of a high speed civic
transport supersonic aircraft.

This vehicle will be
capable flying at speed

up to two point four
times the speed of sound.

This panel is made from the IM7

[inaudible] five composite that
Cathy and Roberto talked about.

This panel will be
tested in tension;

well we can use this
machine to apply

up to one point two million
pounds of force on to the panel

until the breaks are fail.

>> Well we test pounds here at room
temperature Todd also has thermal

structural test as smaller panels
are using layout the same deposit

of material.

>> That's right NASA has
it's a research program

to develop a reusable launch
vehicle known as X33 and X34

which we used in transport
people and materials

to orbit at a lower cost.

In order to see how effectively

[inaudible] deposits can work
in harsh environments and space

that test relatively small samples
of composite materials to look

at hydrogen proponent
things physically test here.

In one test we use liquid nitrogen

and liquid helium to
cool the specimen.

The panel is cooled
to negative point

of twenty three degrees Fahrenheit,

then a mechanical load is applied.

An example of how cold
liquid nitrogen is,

we'll dip this carnation
into liquid nitrogen

and see how brittle
the flower's become.

>> In one test, we pushed
material to the max.

In some materials we

[inaudible] one surface
of panel to minus

[inaudible] degrees Fahrenheit of
the same time as the other side

of the panel to two hundred
fifty degrees Fahrenheit.

Sections of the material is then
placed beneath a microscope to look

for any cracks or flaws.

If the flaws falls within
unacceptable ranges during the time

of these test you retest
the material or even go back

to the drawing board to
change the fabrication process

or the material.

>> Gentlemen thank you so much
for your times today in helping

to explain to me the process
of testing new materials.

But now that brings me back to Van.

What would you suggest Van
should do with his cookies,

how should he test his cookies?

>> I think he should
try a bending test,

performed at room temperature,

that way he can see how
well the cookie holds up

and whether or not it crumbles.

>> Also to the extreme, you know

[inaudible], to test how
well his cookie hold up.

You should try a thermal
dunking test.

Firstly he dunks it in cold
milk and then hot chocolate.

>> Oh, that really sounds like
some good test, thank you very much

and I will report back
to Van thanks again.

>> Ah! And the thermal test
it went well, great, right?

What about the bending test?

>> Well, I'm ready to test it now.

Oh wow these are bending really
well; I think this recipe works.

>> Van I think you are forgetting
the most importance test.

>> Oh what's that?

>> The taste test?

>> The taste test, alright
well, I'll call you back

with my final results.

But first, I have
something planned.

While I get ready for
this most important test,

Shelley is going back to the NASA
Connect studio with some researches

who are on hand to take your
phone calls and e-mail questions

about composite materials and
future vehicles like the X-33.

Meanwhile I am going
to send you to Hugo

[inaudible] Middle School
where you will see students

from the classroom of
science teacher Bernadette

[inaudible] Smith conducting an
experiment, examining the strength

of the several materials.

Follow along and after
that you will be challenged

to make your own analysis and
predictions based on their results.

>> Hi, we are the
students from Hugo

[inaudible] Middle School.


[inaudible] Virginia.

>> NASA Connect astro science and
math teachers Miss Bernadette Smith

and Miss Angela Lanes who have
our class investigate the strength

and the fraction of a
composite material with

and about the use of reinforcement.

Miss Smith reviews some vocabulary
returns which will help us

in our composite research.

A polymer is a large molecule
built by the repetition

of small simple chemical units.

Nylon, Polyester, Teflon and
rubber are examples of polymers.

The fiber is a long thin strand
of materials such as Nylon,

hair, wood or even glass.

Stress cracks are external or
internal cracks anybody caused

by the application of
forces to the body.

Maximum deflection is the
largest deflection that a body

or structures allowed to take
well in use before failure.

Having reviewed these terms
we're now ready to divide

into our research teams.

>> Here are the procedures we
follow to do the experiments

and you can do it too.

Cut out of about six
pieces of eight

by fifteen centimeters
across the Board.

Two of these will be used with
out any reinforcement or binding.

Two will be used with the epoxy

[inaudible] and two will
be used with the epoxy


For the epoxy preparation
put on the rubber gloves

and safety glasses
and then squeeze out

[inaudible] two parts epoxy to make
a pool about the size of a quarter

on the back of the poster of board.

Mix thoroughly with the epoxy

[inaudible], spread the
epoxy evenly over the surface

of the first poster board,
take the second poster board

and press the two pieces together.

Weigh the sample down
to help consolidated

after you have done this,
let the epoxy near to us

across the board dry
for 10 minutes.

Now we will prepare the fiber
glass epoxy poster board composite.

Spread the epoxy to one side
of the board with the epoxy

and lay the piece of fiber
glass on top of the glue.

Once this is done lay the back
of the second poster board on top

of the fiber glass and
press to form a sample.

The thickness of each
sample is measured

for its strength calculation.

Our math teacher Mrs. William
provides us with the number.

While the epoxy poster board and
the fiber glass board are drying,

its time to begin testing the
now composite poster board.

>> Take the two five meter sticks
and have the bridges placed

between the two desks
using the ruler

and measure the inside
distance between the sticks,

its six centimeters apart so there
was support they poster board.

This is called the stand.

Make sure you have taped down
the sticks on to the desk,

tie one of those strings on to a

[inaudible] candle and tie other
end into a loop big enough to slide

over the leght wise part
of the poster board.

Be sure to measure out and
that enough string so that the

[inaudible] dangle five
centimeters above the ground.

This distance from the ground is
our designed maximum inflections.

And is the design we
planned of this experiment.

Now set the poster
board over the sticks

and let the jug hang down gently.

>> Carefully pour the water into
the jar as for the test materials


We cut the jar with the word NSJ.

Place this on to the
scales and tell

that how much weight cost the
post to board to bend or break.

Whereas we have tested the
plane board, the epoxy board

and fiber glass board,
we will compare our data

with the other teams.

Now we have finished our experiment
Mrs William helped us to think

about where our data might show us

and what mathematical statements
we might write to analyze the data.

>> Okay joining in the studio our

[inaudible] in materials research
engineer and NASA Langley here

in Hampton Virginia
also don't know what

in the space transportation
program that Martian

and Space Flight Centre in

[inaudible] Alabama but before
we take to our researchers

and let you ask some questions,
let's give you a chance

to your own computations
using the data

from the experiments you just saw,

then after this segment our two
researchers will be answering your

e-mail questions and taking
question from our viewing audience.

Okay, now the carefree for
data and use the information

in the following diagrams
work with your fellow students

to answer the question as read
aloud by Dr. Catherine Fay.

>> From the data presented

which specimen has the
highest flex strength, why?

>> Based on the data presented

which specimen has some
lowest flex strength, why?

>> Why is there such
a big difference

between the flex strengths
of specimens one and two?

[Shelley:] Okay, we are back
and with me our Alberto Cano

and Bill Millwood to
answer your questions,

but to start this off though let
me go to you, get some little more

about this X33 and X34 what
is this, what are they?

>> Oh, thanks Shelley.

It's sort of like the cookie
taste test, it's the final test

for new material once they
are developed in the lab

and then tested on the ground
the next step is to fly them

and the X33 and X34 do just that,

they are both unpiloted
test vehicles,

the X34 flies eight times
the speed of sound that's

about a hundred times faster than
your parents would drive a car.

And X33 flies even faster at
fifteen times of speed of sound,

they both will fly next year
and the material will lead

to lower cost for usable
spacecraft in the future

and these future space vehicles
will takes to Mars and beyond.

>> Wow, we are really
talking up some

of the future vehicles
here then aren't we?.

>> That's right.

>> Well we already have some e-mail
questions waiting for us, let me go

and take your first
e-mail question,

that question what are the
different categories of composites

if I want to take that.

>> Well Shelley, it's a
power of major composites

that we saw during the show
which are reinforced plastics.

It's all some room for metals
where metal may make composites

and got you also have
composite ceramics,

here ceramics matrix
composites so its various types

of the composites you can use.

>> Okay, so tell us the all
these different composites

when do you know when
to use which one?

>> Depend on the application
what the application's needs,

what the temperature used dictates
what kind of matrix you going

to use and the kind
of reinforcement.

>> Okay so it's the requirement
that's in the application.

Okay what...I understand
we've got a caller out there,

it's a caller hey how about
giving us your first name

and your question please.

>> How long does it take to
build new airplane material?

>> How long does it take
to build a new airplane?

Well why don't you give us
a little idea about the X33

and X34 what's the
time line on that?

>> Okay these aircraft are
very short high-risk programs.

Both of them were contracted
for thirty month time period

from the authority to
proceed to first flight.

>> All right so it will take let
may be two year before we would

actually see this flying then?

>> Three years.

>> Three years, thirty
months type of thing.

Okay very good.

That was a excellent question.

Thank you.

Well I am going to go
back to the e-mails.

You get a couple of
more e-mail questions.

But calling with questions
if you have them,

our second e-mail question how
are composite materials being used

with the X33, let's
go back to you Bill?

>> Okay with the X33, this is scale
model the actual vehicles much

large than this and is also larger
than X34 by a small amount now.

It has two hydrogen composite
tanks and a thrust structure.

The hydrogen tanks
are full of fuel.

>> All right, very good.

>> And the X34 which will
fly next May as well,

it has a composite fuel tank up
front and also has a structure

which is a backbone of vehicle
which is made out of composites.

And these two vehicles by
having lighter weight materials

that are reusable will lead

to less expensive
spacecraft for the future.

>> All right very
good and I understand,

now we've got someone else who is
going to ask us some questions.

So let's go back out to
our viewers and caller how

about giving us your first
name and your question.

>> And a caller there?

>> Yeah! My name is


>> I repeat the question
again please.

>> And my question is how
did, when you played your hand

in that liquid stuff and
how did you get it so cold?

>> Okay that's going back to
where we saw Dr. Ted Johnson.

The actually had some protective
ware on he had put a flower

in there and that was
may be you do one answer,

do you want to answer anything
about what he was doing there?

>> Well he just stuck the flower
in liquid nitrogen which froze it

and when he was trying that he
was wearing cryogenic gloves

which protected his hand.

>> All right so he was
doing a lot of safety there.

All right.

Let's just take one quick
final e-mail question

and quick response to this please.

What are some examples in our daily
lives were composite materials are

being used, this is for one of you.

>> Oh! One place were composites
are used is in sporting goods

that is in tennis rackets
and other applications

where you can use these
types of material.

>> All right sporting goods.

All right well I see we are
quickly running out of time Alberto

and Bill thank you very much
for joining us here today.

And thanks to all of
the partners and guests

that contributed to
today's program.

If you want to learn more about
today's topic visit our web panel

of experts and to try your own hand

that becoming a production
scientist then jump

into our online experiment,
secret formulas.

Finally for a video tape copy
of this NASA Connect show

and lesson plans, contact CORE the
NASA Central Operation of Resources

for Educators for NASA Connect.

I am Shelley Camry.

>> Hello.

>> Van, hey so tell me how
did it go did we have a flop

or a future sensation.

>> What I can't hear you.

What's all that noise
at the background,

where are you calling from?

>> I enrolled in Johnson
and Wales university,

College of Culinary Arts
in Northern Virginia.

I think I do have
a future sensation.

The Jumbo Jet of all cookies.

The dough is prepared,
the oatmeal and raising

[inaudible] have been
added and the oven's heated

and the shape is made I
think it's time for lift off.

Oh! Well join us next time when we
connect you to the world of math,

science and NASA for NASA
Connect, I am Van Hughes.

Good bye. Now you should



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