Transcript for NASA Connect - Functions and Statistics - International Space Station - Up To Us

[Will Shepherd:] Hi, welcome
to the Space Station Alpha.

I am Commander Will Shepherd

and these are my fellow space
engineer Sergei Crackalaw,


Right now, we are
orbiting two hundred

and thirty mile above the earth.

On today's NASA Connect, to learn
how NASA researches are working

together, but PAN-National

of World Space Station Alpha.

You have observed NASA engineers
and researchers using math, science

and technology to solve
their everyday problems,

but you get to construct your
own model of the Space Station

and check out an interactive
website that out of this world.

So stay tune and hop aboard

for another exciting
episode of NASA Connect.

[Van Hughes:] Great,
I think I see them.

[Jennifer:] There they go!

[Van Hughes:] Wow!

They are traveling pretty fast.

[Jennifer:] They sure
are, thanks guys.

[Van Hughes:] Bye.

[Jennifer:] Hey did you know

that the Space Station is orbiting
our earth, right now and it's

so big, that sometimes you can
see it travel across the sky.

[Van Hughes:] That's right,

later on in the show,
we will tell you how?

But, first welcome to NASA Connect.

The show that connects you to
math, science, technology and NASA.

[Jennifer:] This is Tranquility
park in downtown Houston Texas.

I am Jennifer Pulley.

[Van Hughes:] And I am Van Hughes.

[Jennifer:] Now before
we start the show,

make sure your teacher has the
lesson guide for today's program,

it can be downloaded from
our NASA Connect website.

You want to keep your eyes
on our friend Norbert,

because every time he appears
with questions like this,

have your Q cards and the lesson
guide and your brain ready

to answer the questions
he gives you.

And teachers when you see Norbert
with a remote, that's your Q

to pause the video tape and
discuss the Q part questions.

[Van Hughes:] Today you are
at NASA Johnson Space Center,

here in Houston.

[Jennifer:] Why?

To learn about the international
space station or the ISS,

and the people who make it work.

The ISS is a huge laboratory,
being built in orbit.

Scientist on the ground; who send
their research to the station

to be performed by astronauts
from all around the world.

[Van Hughes:] There are
sixteen countries participating

in the largest and most expensive
laboratory ever built in space.

By working together rather
than competing, top scientist

from around the world can
collaborate and share information.

[Jennifer:] Using the
United States Space Shuttle

and various rockets
from other countries.

It will take more than
one hundred space flights

to assemble the one hundred
plus component of the ISS.

[Van Hughes:] The ISS will be about
the size of a footballs fields

and will weigh approximately
one million pounds

or over one hundred adult
elephants approximately total the

volume of a seven forty seven
Jumbo Jet and generate enough power

to light up more than
forty average homes.

>> How will the international
space station get all that power?

[Jennifer:] From the sun,

giant solar arrays will
capture the energy from the sun

and convert it to electricity.

We will learn more about the
parts of the space station

and what they do a little later.

[Van Hughes:] As we witness
from the Expedition One Crew,

the first full time
residence on the ISS,

the space station now
supports human life.

During Expedition One's
five month space stay,

the Corbett Space
Shuttle Atlantis delivered

and installed the first
U.S. laboratory, Destiny.

This lab built by
the Boeing Company

of the NASA Marshall Space Flight
Center, is the center piece

for scientific research
on the station

and will support many experiments.

[Jennifer:] Space station
crews will continue

to rotate shifts every four to
six months, preparing the station

for the arrival of more components
and beginning scientific research.

>> Why build international
space station?

[Van Hughes:] Great question.

If you like to study sound,
you go to acquire room.

If you like to study light, you
go to a dark room and if you like

to study the effects of
gravity, you would want to go

into an anti-gravity room.

But since there is no such
thing on earth, we have the ISS.

[Jennifer:] On board the ISS
a micro-gravity environment

is created.

This is where the affects of
gravity are reduced compared

to those experienced on earth.

You see the ISS is
in a continuous state

of free fall around the earth.

Causing the astronauts and
objects inside to appear

to float and be weightless.

You can experience free fall
when you jump of a diving board.

You are practically weightless
until you hit the water.

>> But how does this space
station stand in orbit

if it is falling towards the earth?

[Van Hughes:] Here is an analogy.

Three hundred years ago a
great scientist by the name

of Sir Isaac Newton, imagined
an experiment in his head.

He pictured a cannon on top
of the very tall mountain,

when he fired the cannon,

the cannon ball would
soon fall to earth.

But if he used a cannon with more
power the cannon ball would go half

way around the earth
before it landed

and if he used a super-duper
cannon, the cannon ball would go

so fast, that it would
fall at the same rate

that the earth surface is
curving away beneath it.

This super fast cannon ball
would never hit the earth,

it would be in orbit and if you
are sitting on the cannon ball,

you would feel weightless.

NASA uses rockets
instead of a cannon

and the ISS instead
of a cannon ball.

[Jennifer:] By understanding
the affects of gravity,

we can learn light things
behave the way they do.

[Van Hughes:] Take that
human body for instance.

How does a microgravity environment
affect the residence of the ISS?

One of our guest will feel us in.

[Jennifer:] The ISS will
also give students like you,

first hand experience
with the space program.

Get this from your own classroom,
you can talk via amateur radio

to the astronauts on board the ISS.

[Van Hughes:] Or learn about
earth from the unique perspective

of space with earth
camp, which stands for,

earth knowledge acquired
by middle school students.

The earth camp has already flown

on five shuttle missions
involving students nationally

and internationally.

Visit the earth camp
website to learn more.

[Jennifer:] And don't
forget later in the show,

you will be constructing
your own model of the ISS,

but before we do that, let's
learn about some of the parts

that make up the space station.

>> How will space
shuttle attach to the ISS?

Describes two ways

of the international space
station will stay in earth's orbit?

>> Describe the function of the
solar arrays, thermo radiators,


>> I would like to welcome
NASA Connect this morning

to the Johnson Space
Center here in Houston.

My name is

[inaudible] and I work with the
international space station program

viewing out reaching

What we are building in outer space
is a world class research facility.

The United States NASA is the
lead integrator of the program.

ESA, the European Space Agency,
the Russian Space Agency,

the Japanese Space Agency and
the Canadian Space Agency,

all own international space station

and as partners bring elements and
people and training and research

and all the facilities that we are
building to our orbiting facility.

In 1998, we began with
a Russian built U.S paid

for module called Saria.

And what it was; is the
initial power block and brains

of the station, soon after
that we launched Unity;

that was a Boeing built,
United States elements.

Unity is one of three connecting
bridge modules; that would be put

on the international space station.

After we put Unity up;
came the service module,

that's an entirely Russian
element, its Russian built

and Russian launched and service
module actually took over much

of the function that we had at
Saria and it also is the place

where the astronauts
live, work and sleep.

>> How does the shuttle
dock to the space station?

>> Well that's what Unity provides,
Unity has six docking ports,

so the shuttle comes up and docks
to a pressurize meeting adapter,

which is attached to the
Unity bridge and then

through there supplies can be
moved into the space station.

>> So how would the station get
power for the astronauts to use?

>> From the sun, what the
international space station has,

is a series of giant solar arrays,

[inaudible] solar arrays.

We have one set of arrays up there
right now, there will be four

in total, that the
align along the truss.

>> What exactly is a truss?

>> The truss is a backbone
birder like structure

and we will see this long
almost like steel beam crake box

and that's literally what
these solar arrays are going

to be _____ attached to, it's
what modules are hung from

and the astronauts will be
walking along it, also walking

and riding along it, will be
the Canadian robotic arms system

for the international
space station.

>> Attached to the
arm is what we call

as special Dexter's manipulator
system or a very smart hand

that will go along and
pick up different parts,

modules and move it around.

>> Okay, so I know that the
solar arrays are around the truss

but what are the other
rectangular things?

>> Then you probably talking
about the thermal radiator,

that's the heat rejection system,

much like an air conditioning
system which function in your home,

the job of these radiator is
to collect the build up of heat

and power generated
internally and use it to move

that heat outside the space
station, dump it into space.

So that we can maintain
comfortable levels of working

for the astronauts for the systems.

>> Now, I know the ISS is
in state of free fall honey

but how does it stay up in orbit?

>> Well initially we had
adequate control thruster;

that will continue to operate

through out the life
of the station.

These are the little jets that
use fuel to keep our attitude.

>> What you mean by
attitude control?

>> Well, Jennifer the space station
has to maintain a certain position,

as it's being constructed, we
want to get the maximum exposure

to the sun for the arrays,

so the attitude control is what
keeps this position of the station.

>> So how do you know the pieces
are going to fit together,

when you get them in space?

>> Well this is part of
the miracle challenge

that confronts the international
space station program,

because these measure
elements have to fit together

with paralleling tolerance the
first time, when they are attached

in a orbit, all the flight
elements are literally put in line

on their way to get
integrated into the shuttle,

what we can't do physically,
we are doing through software.

In fact controlling the
international space station is

going to take more than two
million lines of computer code.

And we are learning valuable things
to get testing or fixing problems,

before they ever become
a problem line in orbit.

>> Thank you so much Honey.

Now that we have learnt about
some of the parts of the ISS,

how would you like to
build your own model?

>> But wait, there is a catch.

You have a question.

>> NASA Connect travel
North-West to San Francisco,

California for this
programs classroom activity.

>> Hi! Welcome all of you in
San Francisco, California.

>> NASA Connect has asked us

to show you this programs
classroom activity.

>> You are work in groups,

to design an alternative
space station.

Then you create a model using
everyday items, like aluminum cans,

cereal boxes and stars, now
analyze an interpret data

to determine a best design
based on budget restriction,

weight and placement of
parts that you construct.

Teachers make sure, you are
done with the lesson guide,

but this activity of the
NASA Connect website,

in it you find the list
of materials, directions

and pseudo worksheet
through our cover every thing

in the next few minutes, but
we will give you a general idea

about how all goes
together to begin,

your teacher will display
the label picture of the ISS,

as it may appear on completion.

Discuss each component
and its functions.

>> Okay the National Aeronautics

and Space Administration
need your help.

They want you to design
and build the model

of international space station and
your budget is one billion dollars.

>> Your first step is to
construct the components.

To power your station you may

[inaudible] of

[inaudible] rays, using
transparency firm and


The thermal radiator used to
support the station and made

with the aluminum foil.

A car board too serves the

[inaudible] port.

The habitation and laboratory
models are made with aluminum cans.

The trust segments use to connect
the models and made from firm


A small serial box represents the
core model of your space station.

Buttons are used to stimulate
the attitude control thrusters

and for the robotic arm

[inaudible] flexible drinking
straw, find the total math

and total cost of each
component using formulas provided

in the lesson guide
and record the values

[inaudible] work sheet
before you design some

of your space station you
need to pay close attention

to constrains listed in Appendix A.

>> Okay remember the budget
for the space station is one

billion dollars.

If you break component or
sexual space station you have

to purchase a new one.

>> Now decide how
are the components

of your space station
would be arranged.

Make a sketch before you
start your actual assembly

and don't forget you constrains.

Use taping glue to
put it all together

When your space station is
assembled the next step is

to calculate the total math,
because the ISS is been

[inaudible] orbit and
that can its impossible

to get the total math at one time.

Therefore NASA determines the
total math by taking the sum

of the individual components
before they are lost into space.

Since we are working with
the model there are two ways

to calculate the total math.

First take a some of the math
with the individual components.

Then use your balance to
weight your completed model.

All the difference between the two
masses and compare the accuracy

of massing individual
pieces with the math

of the entire space station.

If the difference is great

than five grams you
will be charged a tax

of one million dollars per gram.

If the difference is
less than or equal

to five grams then the
space tax to modify,

avoid any space tax in data table.

Finally cut for the total
cost of your space station.

By taking the sums of cost
for all your components

and any space tax you own.

Did you meet you budget
or are you over budget?

>> We would like to thank the

[inaudible] AIAA student branch
for helping us in this activity.

If you would like to learn more

about then AIAA interim
program check

out the NASA connects website.

>> So far we have learned about a
few of the parts that actually make

up the international space station.

>> That's right and you
been given the opportunity

to put together your own
model of the space station

>> You know I wonder how
difficult it is for the Astronauts

to actually dock the
shuttle to the space station.

>> Technology is the key.

Let's connect to

[inaudible] and one more.

>> NASA connect traveled
Northeast to Chicago Illinois

for this programs
web based activity.

>> You are right Jennifer
technology can

and will transform the
way we train and educate,

and that's why we brought hear the
Chicago Illinois to introduce you

to NASA Connect's
museum partner The

[inaudible] Planetarium and its
strongly museum and to tempt

to apply your hands and your minds

to an online space
flight experience.

As you can see and the officer
public many different ways to learn

about into explore
science and astronomy.

>> We are now here in the solar
system gallery, we have students

from Bright Elementary School
and the inevitably student branch

of the Illinois Institute
of Technology have gathered

and are waiting for
you to introduce you

to a new website created specially
for NASA Connect or the NASA

[inaudible] of the feature
which is located in

[inaudible] West Virginia.

Our friends at the

[inaudible] of future had put
together the unique experience

that combines internet
based simulations,

hands on activities and

[inaudible] mechanics.

>> No, no it's not about
good seen things in space

but it's how things like
motion, acceleration

and enforce affect artic and
space-like the planets, the moon,

the stars the U.S. space shuttle
in the international space station.

So how about again, do
you have the right stuff

for this programs online challenge.

>> Some

[inaudible] lab on the
NASA connect website quick

on the activity button.

Here you will find the first
hands on experiment designed

to get you ready to use the
web based orbital simulator.

Using a classic ruler, two glass
or metal bowls, a few cans,

masking tape and a stop
watch, you will be able

to define the difference between
fairy motion and acceleration.

This simulator gives
you the opportunity

to give two objects
orbiting a planet or star

by adjusting a orbital
radius of one of the objects.

You can begin to explore
how radiuses spin

over a period are all connected.

After using a simulator
you begin to understand how

to answer this question.

How can we use our
knowledge of orbits

to help the shuttle rendezvous

with the international
space station?

This shuttle ISS orbital
simulator will get you ready

for the actual docking activity
you will do with your classmates.

On this website you will
start with the shuttle

and ISS orbiting the
earth at the same altitude

at ninety degrees apart.

The challenge is to determine the
most efficient right to position

that two objects so that they
are traveling at the same speed.

And close enough to each other

to perform the visible
docking man hours.

Now let's start an
activity that Joe's directly

with the international
space station.

>> I'm Deon Watson; I'm with NASA's
classroom of the future and part

of the international space
station challenge website activity.

Today we're doing a
docking simulation,

when you do that actually building

and docking simulator using
office chair on wheel, tri-pad,

video camera, docking

[inaudible] nominated
fund and a TV.

We're also going to do the man
in control with 2-way radios,

we are having thrusters
having using ropes for control

and commanding control
is from mission control.

Mission control's only reference
is the video events that they see

on the screen they give
movement commands to the pilot,

the pilot relays that information
to the thrusters and thrusters move

and hopefully we successfully

and dock to the space station.

All additional information
about how

to construct the docking
challenge, amateur

and our activity relating material
is at NASA's Connect website.

>> Bringing to you that power
of digital learning, I'm

[inaudible] for NASA
Connect online.

>> Bye.

>> Technology really is the
key to Astronaut training

and the tools they use.

>> Right but what about the
research being conducted

for the International
Space Station.

>> Yeah and micro
gravity environment.

How does that affect the astronauts
working and living in space?

>> Well for answers we
can hear to building nine

at the Johnson's Space Centre.

>> What to meet about
the research environment

on the International Space Station.

>> How does zero gravity
affects fluids in your body?

>> Describe relationship
between time and space and


>> As the research manager
for the ISS program here

at the Johnson's space centre,
it's my job to communicate

with scientists who
want to do research

on board the space station.

>> I also work with the
builders of the station

to be sure it's both a
well-equipped laboratory

and observatory.

>> You see the ISS is about
exploration, human exploration.

>> It's the place where we will
learn to leave and work in space.

It's where we will establish a
permanent human presence in space

and advance human exploration
of our solar system.

>> What kind of work will
be conducted on the ISS?

>> Research!

We will work on improving
manufacturing processes,

developing better health care

and researching tomorrow's
products today.

>> All this research
will take place

in the laboratory you saw
earlier and in the unique

out of this world
environment of space.

You see the micro-gravity

and high advantage
point for viewing earth

and the universe are unique.

The permanent space station allows
experiments to run for longer times

than we used to on
the space shuttle

and give the scientist repeated
access to these experiments.

This research cannot
be done on earth.

>> Well, Doctor

[inaudible] sounds like a
micro-gravity environment,

we will have scientist
make new discoveries,

but how will micro-gravity
affect the people living

on board the space station?

>> Very good question Jennifer.

The human body reacts
immediately and dramatically

to the micro-gravity
environment we feel when we go

on to orbit around here.

>> Remember how you explained
being on the station is like being

in the state of free power.

It feels like there is no gravity
that's why we often call it zero-G.

>> One of the first reactions
of the body to zero-G is

to push our internal
fluids upward in our body.

>> You see on earth,
in one-G our body works

to push the fluids inside upwards.

So all the water, blood and other
fluids don't collect in your feet.

When the body first
experiences zero-G it continues

to push the fluids up as on earth
but since there is no one-G point

down any more, the upper body
and head ends up with too much


If you've ever seen pictures of
us in space on the first day,

our faces are popped up like

[inaudible] because of the
extra fluid in our upper body.

But the body quickly senses
this condition and begins

to move the fluids to
different parts of the body.

And about two or three days we
reach a new point of balance

where our bodies have less
fluid in our blood stream

than the average person on earth.

If you return to earth one-G

in this state you
would probably faint.


[inaudible] we fluid low just
before returning to earth.

For instance we drink at least the
one code of water within one hour

of returning along with soft
tablets which keeps the water

from passing directly
through your bladder.

>> Wow! Well how

[inaudible] does micro-gravity
affect the human body.

>> Well

[inaudible] on a longer term affect

which also begins immediately
is the loss of bone mass.

When you loose bone mass,
your bones become brittle

and break very easily.

>> Anyway only about four
hundred humans of Colonial Space

and only a fraction of them were
tested carefully for bone loss.

The number so far, are startling,

healthy space travelers loose
bone mass ten times faster

than people here on earth.

Whether in space for one
week or one year the rate

of bone loss is about the same.

>> Let me show you the
how important math is

when determining bone loss.

The percent of bone
loss is a function

of length of time and space.

AL is the percent of bone loss, R
is the rate of bone loss per month

and T is the time and space.

So far the data we
collected tells us that humans

in space loose bone mass at a
rate of one percent per month.

The function L equals RT tells
us that the longer you are

in space the more
bone mass you loose.

We have values of T
upto fourteen months

and the function appears linear.

So far we haven't had
any Astronauts in space

for more than fourteen months.

This rate of bone loss could
be a problem if we want to go

on a three year trip to margin back

that trip would cause a bone
mass loss of thirty-six percent.

Our bones would be
so brittle any type

of physical activity would
be out of the question.

>> This is not good news.

We wish the function would
level off eventually with time

and further bone loss would stop.

>> So how do you measure bone loss?

>> Well, we measure bone loss
by conducting test like x-rays

on the crew, both before
and after they fly.

>> Each person reacts
differently to zero-G,

so we need to put the data
from many Astronauts altogether

and use statistics to predict the
effect on future crew members.

>> We calculate means, medians,
and standard deviations.

Our statistics so
far are not that good

because we have data
on so few people.

>> You see when your average
data from only a few people

out of a large group resulted
among those few people may not

match the average
of the larger group.

>> However if you
collect data on hundreds

of people like ground based
medical research does,

the average is more reliable
and easier to predict.

Because the

[inaudible] handful of good
measurements on space flyers,

our predicted average
is less reliable.

We just need to make
many more measurements.

>> We will also study why
we loose our bone mass?

Then maybe we can develop
drugs to stop the effect.

In fact the National
Institution of Health is working

with us on this research.

So you see research on IFS is not
only about improving life in Space

but also improving
life here on earth.

>> Well, thanks so much Doctor


>> Yeah, very welcome.

>> Earlier in the program Jennifer
and I said you could see the ISS

in this type from
your own backyard.

>> Visit this website to see if the
ISS will be flying over your city.

>> Speaking with the
internet, how would you like

to take a virtual tour of the
ISS from your own computer?

>> NASA Connect traveled
Northeast to NASA Line

and Research Center in

[inaudible] of Virginia to find

out about the virtual
International Space Station.

>> The virtual International Space
Station or the ISS is an immersive

[inaudible] model
of the Space Station

that could be installed
on your computer.

Once installed you will be able
to walk about the interior and fly

around exterior of the ISS as
it if you are on a Space Walk.

The virtual environment similar

to virtual computer
games you may play.

You can take a tour of each
model of the station and click

on the red question marks
for additional information.

The VISS allows to have you
realistic Astronaut perspective

and whatever we like to work
and live in the station.

>> But

[inaudible] why was the
Virtual International Space

Station created?

>> That's a good question as you
learned earlier, the space station

who have many different experience
we conducted all at once,

but problem is, this can
also make things difficult

for the scientist and researchers.

We see there are hundreds and
hundreds of documents that are go

into a bunch of detail about
what the station can do?

Scientist and researchers
who are familiar

with the station capabilities
back to solve all

of those documents to find out

[inaudible] could help them
with their experiments.

The VISS was created so
potential users of the station,

like scientist can use their
computer and actually walk

up to an experiment facility
on the station just by

[inaudible] to a book in library
then quickly skin information

to see

[inaudible] would help
with their research.

Currently the VISS is the only
publicly available 3D environment

introduced people to the
many capabilities of the ISS.

>> That's awesome, how can
we get the virtual ISS?

>> You can download the virtual
international space station

at this website because the
tour includes the completed

international space station,
the files are quite larger

so lots of time to download.

[Jennifer:] Well you that wraps up
another episode of NASA connect.

We would like to thank
everyone who helped

to make this episode possible.

>> Ya, Jennifer I are waiting
for your questions, comments

and suggestion so write
us at NASA connects.


[inaudible] the research
centre mail stop four hundred,

[inaudible] Virginia 23681 or email
us at

>> Teachers if you
would like to video tape

of this program and the company in

[inaudible] check out
the NASA Connect website.

From outside you can link to
core the NASA Central Operation

of Resources for Educator or link

to the NASA educated
resource centre network.

>> Until next time stay
connected through math.

>> Science

>> Technology and NASA.

>> see you then

>> see you.


The Open Video Project is managed at the Interaction Design Laboratory,
at the School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill